a, b, Segmentation and 3D reconstruction of landmarks. a, Single x–y plane image in mCherry (587–621 nm, first row) and DY481XL (622–695 nm, second row) detection channels. Third row: detected chromatin markers in which boundaries of the chromosomal volume of interest are marked in red. Fourth row: output of watershed transform on ratio image in which the boundary of the detected cell of interest is marked in green. Scale bar, 10 μm. b, Reconstruction of cell and chromosomal surfaces in 3D (grey) and the predicted division axis (red). c–e, Generating the mitotic standard time model. c, Dynamic time warping is used to align a pair of time-resolved sequences. d, Modified Barton–Sternberg algorithm to align 132 sequences. e, The cumulative s.d. of a single feature after each iteration of the algorithm. It remains nearly constant after the second round indicating that at termination (fourth round) a stable time alignment was achieved. This has been repeated 10 times and similar alignment results are obtained when the number of cells is more than 50.