Brief Communications Arising | Published:

Does the galaxy NGC1052–DF2 falsify Milgromian dynamics?

Naturevolume 561pagesE4E5 (2018) | Download Citation

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1.

    van Dokkum, P. et al. A galaxy lacking dark matter. Nature 555, 629–632 (2018).

  2. 2.

    Milgrom, M. A modification of the Newtonian dynamics as a possible alternative to the hidden mass hypothesis. Astrophys. J. 270, 365–370 (1983).

  3. 3.

    Famaey, B. & McGaugh, S. S. Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND): observational phenomenology and relativistic extensions. Living Rev. Relativ. 15, 10 (2012).

  4. 4.

    Haghi, H. et al. Testing fundamental physics with distant star clusters: theoretical models for pressure-supported stellar systems. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 395, 1549–1557 (2009).

  5. 5.

    Ploeckinger, S. et al. Tidal dwarf galaxies in cosmological simulations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 474, 580–596 (2018).

  6. 6.

    Bekenstein, J. & Milgrom, M. Does the missing mass problem signal the breakdown of Newtonian gravity? Astrophys. J. 286, 7–14 (1984).

  7. 7.

    Kroupa, P. The dark matter crisis: falsification of the current standard model of cosmology. Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 29, 395–433 (2012).

  8. 8.

    Milgrom, M. The modified dynamics as a vacuum effect. Phys. Lett. A 253, 273–279 (1999).

  9. 9.

    Milgrom, M. Solutions for the modified Newtonian dynamics field equation. Astrophys. J. 302, 617–625 (1986).

  10. 10.

    McGaugh, S. S. MOND prediction for the velocity dispersion of the “feeble giant” Crater II. Astrophys. J. 832, L8 (2016).

  11. 11.

    Thomas, G. F. et al. Stellar streams as gravitational experiments. II. Asymmetric tails of globular cluster streams. Astron. Astrophys. 609, A44 (2018).

  12. 12.

    Beers, T. C., Flynn, K. & Gebhardt, K. Measures of location and scale for velocities in clusters of galaxies - a robust approach. Astron. J. 100, 32–46 (1990).

  13. 13.

    Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A., López-Sanjuan, C., Montes, M., Prieto, M. A. & Acosta-Pulido, J. A. The most recent burst of star formation in the massive elliptical galaxy NGC 1052. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 411, L21–L25 (2011).

  14. 14.

    Bellstedt, S. et al. The SLUGGS survey: a comparison of total-mass profiles of early type galaxies from observations and cosmological simulations, to 4 effective radii. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 476, 4543–4564 (2018).

  15. 15.

    Londrillo, P. & Nipoti, C. N-MODY: a code for collisionless N-body simulations in modified Newtonian dynamics. Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. Suppl. 13, 89 (2009).

Download references

Author information


  1. Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

    • Pavel Kroupa
    • , Hosein Haghi
    •  & Akram Hasani Zonoozi
  2. Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Astronomical Institute, Prague, Czech Republic

    • Pavel Kroupa
    •  & Jörg Dabringhausen
  3. Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Department of Physics, Zanjan, Iran

    • Hosein Haghi
    •  & Akram Hasani Zonoozi
  4. School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, Iran

    • Behnam Javanmardi
  5. Departement Physik, Universität Basel, Basel, Switzerland

    • Oliver Müller
  6. Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Saint Andrews, Saint Andrews, UK

    • Indranil Banik
    •  & Hongsheng Zhao
  7. CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China

    • Xufen Wu
  8. School of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China

    • Xufen Wu
  9. Department of Physics and Astronomy, LaserLaB, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    • Hongsheng Zhao


  1. Search for Pavel Kroupa in:

  2. Search for Hosein Haghi in:

  3. Search for Behnam Javanmardi in:

  4. Search for Akram Hasani Zonoozi in:

  5. Search for Oliver Müller in:

  6. Search for Indranil Banik in:

  7. Search for Xufen Wu in:

  8. Search for Hongsheng Zhao in:

  9. Search for Jörg Dabringhausen in:


P.K. conceived the work and wrote the manuscript; H.H. and A.H.Z. performed the external field effect calculations; O.M. and B.J. contributed observational expertise on galaxies; I.B., X.W. and H.Z. contributed MOND expertise; J.D. contributed dwarf galaxy expertise. All co-authors contributed to the manuscript with comments and passages.

Competing interests

Declared none.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Pavel Kroupa.

Supplementary information

  1. Supplementary Information

    This file contains the external field effect calculation in MOND

About this article

Publication history




Issue Date



By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.