To constrain the formation history of an exoplanet, we need to know its chemical composition1,2,3. With an equilibrium temperature of about 4,050 kelvin4, the exoplanet KELT-9b (also known as HD 195689b) is an archetype of the class of ultrahot Jupiters that straddle the transition between stars and gas-giant exoplanets and are therefore useful for studying atmospheric chemistry. At these high temperatures, iron and several other transition metals are not sequestered in molecules or cloud particles and exist solely in their atomic forms5. However, despite being the most abundant transition metal in nature, iron has not hitherto been detected directly in an exoplanet because it is highly refractory. The high temperatures of KELT-9b imply that its atmosphere is a tightly constrained chemical system that is expected to be nearly in chemical equilibrium5 and cloud-free6,7, and it has been predicted that spectral lines of iron should be detectable in the visible range of wavelengths5. Here we report observations of neutral and singly ionized atomic iron (Fe and Fe+) and singly ionized atomic titanium (Ti+) in the atmosphere of KELT-9b. We identify these species using cross-correlation analysis8 of high-resolution spectra obtained as the exoplanet passed in front of its host star. Similar detections of metals in other ultrahot Jupiters will provide constraints for planetary formation theories.
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This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (projects Four Aces and EXOKLEIN with grant agreement numbers 724427 and 771620, respectively). This work was carried out in the framework of the PlanetS National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF).
Nature thanks D. Deming and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Extended data figures and tables
Cross-correlation analysis performed on the in-transit spectrum with a telluric water-absorption template spectrum (at 296 K). The blue and grey curves are the transit depths with and without the telluric correction, respectively. The data are shifted to the rest frame of the star, such that the signal dominated by telluric water absorption occurs near +25 km s−1 (corresponding to the barycentric Earth radial velocity (BERV) systemic velocity), as indicated by the dashed vertical line.
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Hoeijmakers, H.J., Ehrenreich, D., Heng, K. et al. Atomic iron and titanium in the atmosphere of the exoplanet KELT-9b. Nature 560, 453–455 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0401-y
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