Considerable attention has been paid to dating the earliest appearance of hominins outside Africa. The earliest skeletal and artefactual evidence for the genus Homo in Asia currently comes from Dmanisi, Georgia, and is dated to approximately 1.77–1.85 million years ago (Ma)1. Two incisors that may belong to Homo erectus come from Yuanmou, south China, and are dated to 1.7 Ma2; the next-oldest evidence is an H. erectus cranium from Lantian (Gongwangling)—which has recently been dated to 1.63 Ma3—and the earliest hominin fossils from the Sangiran dome in Java, which are dated to about 1.5–1.6 Ma4. Artefacts from Majuangou III5 and Shangshazui6 in the Nihewan basin, north China, have also been dated to 1.6–1.7 Ma. Here we report an Early Pleistocene and largely continuous artefact sequence from Shangchen, which is a newly discovered Palaeolithic locality of the southern Chinese Loess Plateau, near Gongwangling in Lantian county. The site contains 17 artefact layers that extend from palaeosol S15—dated to approximately 1.26 Ma—to loess L28, which we date to about 2.12 Ma. This discovery implies that hominins left Africa earlier than indicated by the evidence from Dmanisi.
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This research was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant 2010CB833400), projects of NSFC (grants 41102115 and 41662012) and Projects of Chinese Academy of Sciences (grants KZCX2-SW-133, KZCX3-SW-152, 2013TIZ0008, XDB26000000, SKLLQG1525, SKLLQG1502, SKLLQG1501 and SKLLQG1122). This is contribution number IS-2546 from GIGCAS and Key Deployment Projects of IVPPCAS. We thank Z. An, R. Zhu, Z. Ding, Z. Guo, Z. Qiu, W. Liu, Y. Pan, W. Dong, H. Tong, H. Zheng, X. Tan, X. Qiang, H. Lu, Y. Pan and C. Deng for guidance in loess–palaeosol stratigraphy, palaeomagnetism and palaeoanthropology; the government of Lantian County and Cultural Relic Management Department of Gongwangling for helping our fieldwork, as well as our colleagues, Y. Kuang, Y. Han, S. Qin, H. Huang, S. Peng, M. Li, Z. Ruan, R. Deng, Y. Hao, Y. Chen, W. Chen, F. Li and Z. Li; and L. Hurcombe for advice on the artefacts.
Nature thanks J. Kappelman, M. Petraglia, A. Roberts and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.