Extended Data Fig. 12: Schematic on the formation of organic condensation cores from a refractory organic film. | Nature

Extended Data Fig. 12: Schematic on the formation of organic condensation cores from a refractory organic film.

From: Macromolecular organic compounds from the depths of Enceladus

Extended Data Fig. 12

a, Ascending gas bubbles in the ocean25 efficiently transport organic material30 into water-filled cracks in the south polar ice crust. b, Organics ultimately concentrate in a thin organic layer (orange) on top of the water table, located inside the icy vents. When gas bubbles burst, they form aerosols made of insoluble organic material that later serve as efficient condensation cores for the production of an icy crust from water vapour, thereby forming HMOC-type particles. In parallel, larger, pure salt-water droplets form (blue), which freeze and are later detected by the CDA as salt-rich type-3 ice particles in the plume8,9.

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