Triggers of tree mortality under drought

Abstract

Severe droughts have caused widespread tree mortality across many forest biomes with profound effects on the function of ecosystems and carbon balance. Climate change is expected to intensify regional-scale droughts, focusing attention on the physiological basis of drought-induced tree mortality. Recent work has shown that catastrophic failure of the plant hydraulic system is a principal mechanism involved in extensive crown death and tree mortality during drought, but the multi-dimensional response of trees to desiccation is complex. Here we focus on the current understanding of tree hydraulic performance under drought, the identification of physiological thresholds that precipitate mortality and the mechanisms of recovery after drought. Building on this, we discuss the potential application of hydraulic thresholds to process-based models that predict mortality.

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Fig. 1: Phases of drought response in plants.
Fig. 2: Non-invasive imaging techniques have provided new insights into embolism formation and spread in the xylem.
Fig. 3: Tree hydraulic traits associated with drought-induced mortality.

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Acknowledgements

We thank S. Stuart, H. Cochard and M. Holbrook for insightful comments and discussion during the preparation of the Review. Micro-computed tomography images included in Fig. 2 were collected during beam-time allocations at the Imaging and Medical beam line (Australian Synchrotron) and TOMCAT beam line (Swiss Light Source). B.C., T.J.B. and B.E.M. acknowledge support from the Australian Research Council (FT130101115; LP140100232; DP170100761). R.L. was supported by a Marie Curie Fellowship (FP7PEOPLE-2013-IOF-624473).

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Nature thanks B. Engelbrecht, N. G. McDowell and M. Mencuccini for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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All authors contributed to writing and planning of the manuscript. B.C., T.J.B. and B.E.M. developed the initial outline and synopsis of the Review. B.C. was responsible for the coordination of the writing of the manuscript. B.C. and C.R.B. prepared figures and the table.

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Correspondence to Brendan Choat.

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Supplementary Table 1

This file contains a list of plant traits (physiological and morphological) that determine rate of decline in plant water potential during drought and thresholds of hydraulic failure.

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Choat, B., Brodribb, T.J., Brodersen, C.R. et al. Triggers of tree mortality under drought. Nature 558, 531–539 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0240-x

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