Extended Data Fig. 7: Derived condition of Cifelliodon and other haramiyidans in orientation and implant of incisor and postcanine roots, in contrast to the typical condition of multituberculates (in labial or lingual views). | Nature

Extended Data Fig. 7: Derived condition of Cifelliodon and other haramiyidans in orientation and implant of incisor and postcanine roots, in contrast to the typical condition of multituberculates (in labial or lingual views).

From: Late-surviving stem mammal links the lowermost Cretaceous of North America and Gondwana

Extended Data Fig. 7

a, C. wahkarmoosuch (UMNH VP16771): procumbent implant of incisor roots. b, V. sertichi with procumbent (hypertrophied) incisor roots (based on figure 2 of Krause et al.18). c, Haramiyavia: the first three incisors are procumbent with elongate and procumbent roots (top-labial view, left–right flipped left premaxillary with in situ incisors; bottom-lingual view of left incisors; based on supplementary figure 1 of Luo et al.4). d, Henkelodon naias (Paulchoffatiidae, Multituberculata: GUI-MAM-28-74). e, Kuehneodon dryas (Paulchoffatiidae, Multituberculata: VJ400-155). f, Kuehneodon simpsoni (Paulchoffatiidae, Multituberculata; based on figure 12.5 from Hahn & Hahn38, reproduced with permission). g, Kryptobaatar dashzevegi (Djadochtatheria; Multituberculata; image from http://digimorph.org/). The procumbent orientation and tooth implant of incisors is a derived condition of haramiyidans (including Cifelliodon), in contrast to the vertically implanted incisors and postcanines of most Mesozoic multituberculates, including basal paulchoffatiids, plagiaulacids and djadochtatherians. The vertical implant of incisors in multituberculate condition is plesiomorphic, as it is also shared by other stem mammaliaforms.