a, Ingenuity pathway analysis of NF-κB signalling comparing a TDD to a TDD plus Trp diet in control animals. Colours code for up- and downregulation of individual members in red (up) and blue (down). Normalized reads of two independent samples per group. b, mRNA expression determined by qPCR in from EAE mice as in Fig. 3a. Data are representative of two independent experiments with three replicates. c, Quantification of co-expression of AHR and CD14, VEGF-B and CD14, TGFα and CD14 in immunofluorescence stainings of human white matter brain tissue of NAWM, active, or chronic MS lesions for AHR (left), VEGF-B (middle), or TGFα (right), CD14 (green), and DAPI (blue). Data are representative of n = 12 fields from three distinct MS brains. d, Ratio of VEGF-B to TGFα intensities. Data are the ratio of mean values from Fig. 4e + s.e.m of n = 25 fields. Data in b and d are mean ± s.e.m. P values derived by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test (b, d).