Extended Data Fig. 8: SEM images of the Ni nanoparticle exsolution process in the PCFC anode. | Nature

Extended Data Fig. 8: SEM images of the Ni nanoparticle exsolution process in the PCFC anode.

From: Highly durable, coking and sulfur tolerant, fuel-flexible protonic ceramic fuel cells

Extended Data Fig. 8

a, b, BZY20 phase of the anode before reduction. The surface of the BZY20 phase is very clean, and there are no nanoparticles along the grain boundaries or on the triple junction points. c, d, BZY20 phase of the anode after reduction under hydrogen at 600 °C for 50 h. Nickel nanoparticles begin to form on the triple junction points and grain boundaries. e, f, BZY20 phase of the anode after reduction under hydrogen at 600 °C for 100 h. More Ni nanoparticles begin to form along grain surfaces and boundaries. The size of exsolved Ni nanoparticles is less than 100 nm.

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