Goldstone, D. C. et al. HIV-1 restriction factor SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase. Nature 480, 379–382 (2011).
Laguette, N. et al. SAMHD1 is the dendritic- and myeloid-cell-specific HIV-1 restriction factor counteracted by Vpx. Nature 474, 654–657 (2011).
Hrecka, K. et al. Vpx relieves inhibition of HIV-1 infection of macrophages mediated by the SAMHD1 protein. Nature 474, 658–661 (2011).
White, T. E. et al. The retroviral restriction ability of SAMHD1, but not its deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase activity, is regulated by phosphorylation. Cell Host Microbe 13, 441–451 (2013).
Cribier, A., Descours, B., Valadão, A. L., Laguette, N. & Benkirane, M. Phosphorylation of SAMHD1 by cyclin A2/CDK1 regulates its restriction activity toward HIV-1. Cell Reports 3, 1036–1043 (2013).
Crow, Y. J. & Manel, N. Aicardi–Goutières syndrome and the type I interferonopathies. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 15, 429–440 (2015).
Yang, Y.-G., Lindahl, T. & Barnes, D. E. Trex1 exonuclease degrades ssDNA to prevent chronic checkpoint activation and autoimmune disease. Cell 131, 873–886 (2007).
Sun, L., Wu, J., Du, F., Chen, X. & Chen, Z. J. Cyclic GMP–AMP synthase is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates the type I interferon pathway. Science 339, 786–791 (2013).
Maelfait, J., Bridgeman, A., Benlahrech, A., Cursi, C. & Rehwinkel, J. Restriction by SAMHD1 limits cGAS/STING-dependent innate and adaptive immune responses to HIV-1. Cell Reports 16, 1492–1501 (2016).
Zhao, K. et al. Modulation of LINE-1 and Alu/SVA retrotransposition by Aicardi–Goutières syndrome-related SAMHD1. Cell Reports 4, 1108–1115 (2013).
Lim, Y. W., Sanz, L. A., Xu, X., Hartono, S. R. & Chédin, F. Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation and RNA:DNA hybrid accumulation in Aicardi–Goutières syndrome. eLife 4, e08007 (2015).
Seamon, K. J., Sun, Z., Shlyakhtenko, L. S., Lyubchenko, Y. L. & Stivers, J. T. SAMHD1 is a single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein with no active site-associated nuclease activity. Nucleic Acids Res. 43, 6486–6499 (2015).
Beloglazova, N. et al. Nuclease activity of the human SAMHD1 protein implicated in the Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome and HIV-1 restriction. J. Biol. Chem. 288, 8101–8110 (2013).
Ryoo, J. et al. The ribonuclease activity of SAMHD1 is required for HIV-1 restriction. Nat. Med. 20, 936–941 (2014).
Clifford, R. et al. SAMHD1 is mutated recurrently in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and is involved in response to DNA damage. Blood 123, 1021–1031 (2014).
Rentoft, M. et al. Heterozygous colon cancer-associated mutations of SAMHD1 have functional significance. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 4723–4728 (2016).
Franzolin, E. et al. The deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase SAMHD1 is a major regulator of DNA precursor pools in mammalian cells. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 14272–14277 (2013).
Zeman, M. K. & Cimprich, K. A. Causes and consequences of replication stress. Nat. Cell Biol. 16, 2–9 (2014).
Pasero, P. & Vindigni, A. Nucleases acting at stalled forks: how to reboot the replication program with a few shortcuts. Annu. Rev. Genet. 51, 477–499 (2017).
Hashimoto, Y., Ray Chaudhuri, A., Lopes, M. & Costanzo, V. Rad51 protects nascent DNA from Mre11-dependent degradation and promotes continuous DNA synthesis. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 17, 1305–1311 (2010).
Schlacher, K. et al. Double-strand break repair-independent role for BRCA2 in blocking stalled replication fork degradation by MRE11. Cell 145, 529–542 (2011).
Ray Chaudhuri, A. et al. Replication fork stability confers chemoresistance in BRCA-deficient cells. Nature 535, 382–387 (2016).
Langereis, M. A., Rabouw, H. H., Holwerda, M., Visser, L. J. & van Kuppeveld, F. J. M. Knockout of cGAS and STING rescues virus infection of plasmid DNA-transfected cells. J. Virol. 89, 11169–11173 (2015).
Holm, C. K. et al. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses. Nat. Commun. 7, 10680 (2016).
Sirbu, B. M. et al. Analysis of protein dynamics at active, stalled, and collapsed replication forks. Genes Dev. 25, 1320–1327 (2011).
Zellweger, R. et al. Rad51-mediated replication fork reversal is a global response to genotoxic treatments in human cells. J. Cell Biol. 208, 563–579 (2015).
Bétous, R. et al. SMARCAL1 catalyzes fork regression and Holliday junction migration to maintain genome stability during DNA replication. Genes Dev. 26, 151–162 (2012).
Kolinjivadi, A. M. et al. Smarcal1-mediated fork reversal triggers mre11-dependent degradation of nascent DNA in the absence of Brca2 and stable Rad51 nucleofilaments. Mol. Cell 67, 867–881.e7 (2017).
Cruz-García, A., López-Saavedra, A. & Huertas, P. BRCA1 accelerates CtIP-mediated DNA-end resection. Cell Reports 9, 451–459 (2014).
Gunn, A., Bennardo, N., Cheng, A. & Stark, J. M. Correct end use during end joining of multiple chromosomal double strand breaks is influenced by repair protein RAD50, DNA-dependent protein kinase DNA-PKcs, and transcription context. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 42470–42482 (2011).
Daddacha, W. et al. SAMHD1 promotes DNA end resection to facilitate dna repair by homologous recombination. Cell Reports 20, 1921–1935 (2017).
Lee, J. & Dunphy, W. G. The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex has a specific role in the activation of Chk1 in response to stalled replication forks. Mol. Biol. Cell 24, 1343–1353 (2013).
Jazayeri, A., Balestrini, A., Garner, E., Haber, J. E. & Costanzo, V. Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1-dependent processing of DNA breaks generates oligonucleotides that stimulate ATM activity. EMBO J. 27, 1953–1962 (2008).
Härtlova, A. et al. DNA damage primes the type I interferon system via the cytosolic DNA sensor STING to promote anti-microbial innate immunity. Immunity 42, 332–343 (2015).
Shen, Y. J. et al. Genome-derived cytosolic DNA mediates type I interferon-dependent rejection of B cell lymphoma cells. Cell Reports 11, 460–473 (2015).
Ho, S. S. W. et al. The DNA structure-specific endonuclease MUS81 mediates DNA sensor STING-dependent host rejection of prostate cancer cells. Immunity 44, 1177–1189 (2016).
Wolf, C. et al. RPA and Rad51 constitute a cell intrinsic mechanism to protect the cytosol from self DNA. Nat. Commun. 7, 11752 (2016).
Mackenzie, K. J. et al. cGAS surveillance of micronuclei links genome instability to innate immunity. Nature 548, 461–465 (2017).
Bartsch, K. et al. Absence of RNase H2 triggers generation of immunogenic micronuclei removed by autophagy. Hum. Mol. Genet. 26, 3960–3972 (2017).
Garcin, G. et al. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity. Nat. Commun. 5, 3016 (2014).
Lin, Y. L. et al. Feline immunodeficiency virus vectors for efficient transduction of primary human synoviocytes: application to an original model of rheumatoid arthritis. Hum. Gene Ther. 15, 588–596 (2004).
Jackson, D. A. & Pombo, A. Replicon clusters are stable units of chromosome structure: evidence that nuclear organization contributes to the efficient activation and propagation of S phase in human cells. J. Cell Biol. 140, 1285–1295 (1998).
Liang, F., Han, M., Romanienko, P. J. & Jasin, M. Homology-directed repair is a major double-strand break repair pathway in mammalian cells. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5172–5177 (1998).
Jia, S., Marjavaara, L., Buckland, R., Sharma, S. & Chabes, A. Determination of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate concentrations in yeast cells by strong anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection. Methods Mol. Biol. 1300, 113–121 (2015).
Sannino, V., Pezzimenti, F., Bertora, S. & Costanzo, V. Xenopus laevis as model system to study DNA damage response and replication fork stability. Methods Enzymol. 591, 211–232 (2017).
Hashimoto, Y. & Costanzo, V. Studying DNA replication fork stability in Xenopus egg extract. Methods Mol. Biol. 745, 437–445 (2011).
Hansen, E. C., Seamon, K. J., Cravens, S. L. & Stivers, J. T. GTP activator and dNTP substrates of HIV-1 restriction factor SAMHD1 generate a long-lived activated state. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, E1843–E1851 (2014).
Zadorozhny, K. et al. Fanconi-anemia-associated mutations destabilize Rad51 filaments and impair replication fork protection. Cell Reports 21, 333–340 (2017).
Pinto, C., Kasaciunaite, K., Seidel, R. & Cejka, P. Human DNA2 possesses a cryptic DNA unwinding activity that functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases. eLife 5, e18574 (2016).
Matulova, P. et al. Cooperativity of Mus81.Mms4 with Rad54 in the resolution of recombination and replication intermediates. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 7733–7745 (2009).
Marini, V. & Krejci, L. Unwinding of synthetic replication and recombination substrates by Srs2. DNA Repair (Amst.) 11, 789–798 (2012).