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The emerging role of checkpoint inhibitors for rare genitourinary cancers

Rare genitourinary cancers have historically been challenging to treat given the scarcity in incidence, inadequacy of data on treatment and lack of general consensus to guide routine therapy. A phase II multicentre trial shows efficacy of nivolumab and ipilimumab in several cohorts of patients with rare genitourinary cancers.

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Correspondence to Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching.

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Competing interests

J.B.A.-C. serves in the Speakers’ Bureau for Bristol Myers Squibb and serves on the advisory board of Pfizer, Merck and EMD Serono.

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ALLIANCE-led A031702 trial:

Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) trial 1609:

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Aragon-Ching, J.B. The emerging role of checkpoint inhibitors for rare genitourinary cancers. Nat Rev Urol 18, 133–134 (2021).

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