Learning the value of stimuli and actions from others — social learning — adaptively contributes to individual survival and plays a key role in cultural evolution. We review research across species targeting the neural and computational systems of social learning in both the aversive and appetitive domains. Social learning generally follows the same principles as self-experienced value-based learning, including computations of prediction errors and is implemented in brain circuits activated across task domains together with regions processing social information. We integrate neural and computational perspectives of social learning with an understanding of behaviour of varying complexity, from basic threat avoidance to complex social learning strategies and cultural phenomena.
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The authors thank P. Tobler, K. Kondrakiewicz, T. Hensler, A. Walsh, and the reviewers for comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. A.O. was supported by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (KAW 2014.0237), a European Research Council Starting Grant (284366; Emotional Learning in Social Interaction project) and a Consolidator Grant (2018-00877) from the Swedish Research Foundation (VR). B.L. was partially supported by Forte (COFAS2: 2014-2785 FOIP) and E.K. by a European Research Council Starting Grant (H 415148) and a National Science Centre grant (2015/19/B/HS6/02209).
The authors declare no competing interest.
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- Social learning
Learning from others, for example through observation and instruction, which may or may not involve directly experienced or vicarious reinforcement.
- Value-based learning
Learning about rewards and punishers, which promote the organization of behaviour for maximizing rewards and minimizing punishments
The use of genetically encoded, light-activated proteins to modulate activity of specific neural circuits. Optogenetics allows for targeting specific cell types or projections to learn the causal relationship between their activity and behaviour.
- Fear contagion
An individual’s fear and related behaviours directly trigger similar emotions and behaviours in others.
- Vicarious reinforcement learning
Use of vicarious reinforcement as a stand in for directly experienced reinforcement in reinforcement learning algorithms.
- Vicarious reinforcement
A motivating outcome, such as a reward or punishment, observed or otherwise known to be incurred by another individual.
The sharing and understanding of the affective state of another individual.
- Domain-general learning
Mechanisms contributing to many cognitive functions, across situations and tasks.
- Vicarious learning
Learning from others without any directly experienced reinforcement. Sometimes used synonymously with ‘observational learning’.
- Observational learning
Learning through observing the responses and behaviour of others, which may or may not involve reinforcement.
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Olsson, A., Knapska, E. & Lindström, B. The neural and computational systems of social learning. Nat Rev Neurosci 21, 197–212 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41583-020-0276-4
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