Here, an ‘all optical’ combination of techniques was used to investigate how spatiotemporal brain activity patterns drive behaviour. Optical readout from a genetically encoded calcium indicator obtained in real time from mouse barrel cortex was used to infer population activity; these data were used to reconfigure the rate and pattern of barrel-cortex photostimulation rapidly enough for ongoing patterns of sensory-evoked activity in individual neurons to be rapidly enhanced in the awake mouse in real time.
Zhang, Z. et al. Closed loop all-optical interrogation of neural circuits in vivo. Nat. Methods https://doi.org/10.1038/s41592-018-0183-z (2018)
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Lewis, S. Closing the loop. Nat Rev Neurosci 20, 3 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41583-018-0107-z