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The missing X factor in Alzheimer disease

Two-thirds of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) are women, and sex differences in AD pathology have been observed, yet little is known about the role of sex chromosomes in AD. New research suggests that X-linked gene expression modifies AD risk in a sex-specific manner. This knowledge could aid the development of precision medicine approaches for AD.

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Correspondence to Maria Teresa Ferretti.

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Competing interests

M.T.F. is the co-founder and Chief Scientific Officer of the non-profit organization ‘Women’s Brain Project’. She has received personal fees from Eli Lilly for work unrelated to this article. A.S.C. is an official employee of Biogen International and works as Head of Stakeholder Engagement for Alzheimer disease at Biogen. She is also co-founder and CEO of the Women’s Brain Project. This article represents her personal view and not the position of any group with which she is associated.

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Ferretti, M.T., Santuccione Chadha, A. The missing X factor in Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurol 17, 727–728 (2021).

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