Humankind relies on host–microbe symbioses and the ecosystems they form for diverse services, including food and health. It is important to understand how symbioses will fare in a world facing rapid global change and how adaptation and resilience of symbioses can be aided to secure their services for future generations.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
McFall-Ngai, M. et al. Animals in a bacterial world: a new imperative for the life sciences. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 110, 3229–3236 (2013).
Pita, L., Rix, L., Slaby, B. M., Franke, A. & Hentschel, U. The sponge holobiont in a changing ocean: from microbes to ecosystems. Microbiome 6, 46 (2018).
Caruso, R., Lo, B. C. & Núñez, G. Host–microbiota interactions in inflammatory bowel disease. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 20, 411–426 (2020).
Hughes, T. P. et al. Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene. Science 359, 80–83 (2018).
Scheele, B. C. et al. Amphibian fungal panzootic causes catastrophic and ongoing loss of biodiversity. Science 363, 1459–1463 (2019).
Bell, J. J., Bennett, H. M., Rovellini, A. & Webster, N. S. Sponges to be winners under near-future climate scenarios. BioScience 68, 955–968 (2018).
Bosch, T. C. G., Guillemin, K. & McFall-Ngai, M. Evolutionary “experiments” in symbiosis: the study of model animals provides insights into the mechanisms underlying the diversity of host–microbe interactions. Bioessays 41, e1800256 (2019).
Nyholm, S. V. & McFall-Ngai, M. J. A lasting symbiosis: how the Hawaiian bobtail squid finds and keeps its bioluminescent bacterial partner. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-021-00567-y (2021).
Visick, K. L., Stabb, E. V. & Ruby, E. G. A lasting symbiosis: how Vibrio fischeri finds a squid partner and persists within its natural host. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-021-00557-0 (2021).
Peixoto, R. S. et al. Coral probiotics: premise, promise, prospects. Annu. Rev. Anim. Biosci. 9, 265–288 (2021).
The author thanks the symbiosis community, in particular for the discussions at the GRC and GRS Animal-Microbe Symbioses since 2015 and the CRC 1182 “Origin and Function of Metaorganisms”, Kiel.
The author declares no competing interests.
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Aquatic Symbioses Model Systems Initiative: https://www.moore.org/initiative-strategy-detail?initiativeId=symbiosis-in-aquatic-systems-initiative
About this article
Cite this article
Hentschel, U. Harnessing the power of host–microbe symbioses to address grand challenges. Nat Rev Microbiol 19, 615–616 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-021-00619-3