The miniaturization of conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a growing trend for emerging virtual and augmented reality and ultrahigh-resolution display applications. However, at present, the downscaling and integration of group III–V LED chips face great challenges, including efficiency droop, inhomogeneous emissions and side-wall losses upon top-down etching and mass-transfer processing. Perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs) are a promising alternative candidate for displays. Within a decade, they have achieved competitive performance owing to their narrowband emission, wide colour gamut and facile fabrication protocols. In particular, solution-processed perovskite emitting layers can be arranged into microscale pixels using various patterning techniques and show great potential for the development of advanced microscale PeLED (micro-PeLED) devices. In this Perspective article, we summarize the recent progress in perovskite patterning techniques and in the fabrication of micro-PeLED demos. We also share our viewpoint regarding the unique advantages of hybrid perovskites for microscale and nanoscale miniaturization, and we conclude by discussing the future challenges and technical roadmap for the development of micro-PeLED displays.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals
Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription
$29.99 per month
cancel any time
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 digital issues and online access to articles
$119.00 per year
only $9.92 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Get just this article for as long as you need it
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
Day, J. et al. III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays. Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 031116 (2011).
Li, P. et al. Size-independent low voltage of InGaN micro-light-emitting diodes with epitaxial tunnel junctions using selective area growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Opt. Express 28, 18707 (2020).
Li, P. et al. Demonstration of high efficiency cascaded blue and green micro-light-emitting diodes with independent junction control. Appl. Phys. Lett. 118, 261104 (2021).
Gandrothula, S. et al. Optical and electrical characterizations of micro-LEDs grown on lower defect density epitaxial layers. Appl. Phys. Lett. 119, 142103 (2021).
Oh, J. T. et al. Light output performance of red AlGaInP-based light emitting diodes with different chip geometries and structures. Opt. Express 26, 11194 (2018).
Jiang, H., Jin, S., Li, J., Shakya, J. & Lin, J. III-nitride blue microdisplays. Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1303–1305 (2001).
Lin, J. & Jiang, H. Development of microLED. Appl. Phys. Lett. 116, 100502 (2020).
Wong, M. S. et al. Improved performance of AlGaInP red micro-light-emitting diodes with sidewall treatments. Opt. Express 28, 5787 (2020).
Wierer, J. J. Jr. & Tansu, N. III-Nitride micro-LEDs for efficient emissive displays. Laser Photon. Rev. 13, 1900141 (2019).
Zhao, Y. et al. 2000 PPI silicon-based AlGaInP red micro-LED arrays fabricated via wafer bonding and epilayer lift-off. Opt. Express 29, 20217 (2021).
Cao, Y. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on spontaneously formed submicrometre-scale structures. Nature 562, 249–253 (2018). This study presents the first report of isolated submicron-scale perovskite crystallites as emitters in near-infrared LEDs.
Liu, Y. et al. Synergistic passivation and stepped-dimensional perovskite analogs enable high-efficiency near-infrared light-emitting diodes. Nat. Common. 13, 7425 (2022).
Dong, Y. et al. Bipolar-shell resurfacing for blue LEDs based on strongly confined perovskite quantum dots. Nat. Nanotech. 15, 668–674 (2020).
Liu, Z. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes with EQE exceeding 28% through a synergetic dual-additive strategy for defect passivation and nanostructure regulation. Adv. Mater. 33, 2103268 (2021).
Kim, Y.-H. et al. Comprehensive defect suppression in perovskite nanocrystals for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes. Nat. Photon. 15, 148–155 (2021).
Ma, D. et al. Distribution control enables efficient reduced-dimensional perovskite LEDs. Nature 599, 594–598 (2021). This study reports state-of-the-art PeLEDs with over 25% efficiency, obtained by homogenizing the polydispersity of perovskite quantum wells.
Jiang, J. et al. Red perovskite light-emitting diodes with efficiency exceeding 25% realized by co-spacer cations. Adv. Mater. 34, 2204460 (2022).
Luo, D., Su, R., Zhang, W., Gong, Q. & Zhu, R. Minimizing non-radiative recombination losses in perovskite solar cells. Nat. Rev. Mater. 5, 44–60 (2020).
Ball, J. M. & Petrozza, A. Defects in perovskite-halides and their effects in solar cells. Nat. Energy 1, 16149 (2016).
Chen, Y. & Zhou, H. Defects chemistry in high-efficiency and stable perovskite solar cells. J. Appl. Phys. 128, 060903 (2020).
Yang, X. et al. Multiple-defect management for efficient perovskite photovoltaics. ACS Energy Lett. 6, 2404–2412 (2021).
Sun, K. et al. Three-dimensional direct lithography of stable perovskite nanocrystals in glass. Science 375, 307–310 (2022).
Protesescu, L. et al. Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut. Nano Lett. 15, 3692–3696 (2015).
Tu, Y. et al. Perovskite solar cells for space applications: progress and challenges. Adv. Mater. 33, 2006545 (2021).
Kaltenbrunner, M. et al. Flexible high power-per-weight perovskite solar cells with chromium oxide-metal contacts for improved stability in air. Nat. Mater. 14, 1032–1039 (2015).
Lin, K. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency exceeding 20 per cent. Nature 562, 245–248 (2018). This study reports a spontaneously formed quasi-core–shell perovskite emitting structure for green LEDs.
Zhao, L. et al. Thermal management enables bright and stable perovskite light-emitting diodes. Adv. Mater. 32, 2000752 (2020).
Krotkus, S., Kasemann, D., Lenk, S., Leo, K. & Reineke, S. Adjustable white-light emission from a photo-structured micro-OLED array. Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16121 (2016).
Kim, S. K. et al. Primary color generation from white organic light-emitting diodes using a cavity control layer for AR/VR applications. Org. Electron. 87, 105938 (2020).
Zhou, X. et al. Dewetting-Assisted Patterning of Organic Semiconductors for Micro-OLED Arrays with a Pixel Size of 1 μm. Small 6, 2101509 (2022).
Yang, X., Wu, J., Liu, T. & Zhu, R. Patterned perovskites for optoelectronic applications. Small Methods 2, 1800110 (2018).
Zou, Y., Cai, L., Song, T. & Sun, B. Recent progress on patterning strategies for perovskite light-emitting diodes toward a full-color display prototype. Small Sci. 1, 2000050 (2021).
Kojima, A., Teshima, K., Shirai, Y. & Miyasaka, T. Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6050–6051 (2009).
Yang, X. et al. Buried interfaces in halide perovskite photovoltaics. Adv. Mater. 33, 2006435 (2021).
Luo, D. et al. Low-dimensional contact layers for enhanced perovskite photodiodes. Adv. Funct. Mater. 30, 2001692 (2020).
Kim, Y. C. et al. Printable organometallic perovskite enables large-area, low-dose X-ray imaging. Nature 550, 87–91 (2017).
Qin, C. et al. Stable room-temperature continuous-wave lasing in quasi-2D perovskite films. Nature 585, 53–57 (2020).
Yang, X. et al. Superior carrier lifetimes exceeding 6 μs in polycrystalline halide perovskites. Adv. Mater. 32, 2002585 (2020).
Zou, W. et al. Minimising efficiency roll-off in high-brightness perovskite light-emitting diodes. Nat. Commun. 9, 608 (2018).
Xu, W. et al. Rational molecular passivation for high-performance perovskite light-emitting diodes. Nat. Photon. 13, 418–424 (2019).
Cui, J. et al. Efficient light-emitting diodes based on oriented perovskite nanoplatelets. Sci. Adv. 7, eabg8458 (2021).
Meredith, P. & Armin, A. LED technology breaks performance barrier. Nature 562, 197–198 (2018).
Liu, Y. et al. Efficient blue light-emitting diodes based on quantum-confined bromide perovskite nanostructures. Nat. Photon. 13, 760–764 (2019).
Singh, M., Haverinen, H. M., Dhagat, P. & Jabbour, G. E. Inkjet printing — process and its applications. Adv. Mater. 22, 673 (2010).
Zheng, H. et al. All-solution processed polymer light-emitting diode displays. Nat. Commun. 4, 1971 (2013).
Dai, X., Deng, Y., Peng, X. & Jin, Y. Quantum-dot light-emitting diodes for large-area displays: towards the dawn of commercialization. Adv. Mater. 29, 1607022 (2017).
Yunker, P. J., Still, T., Lohr, M. A. & Yodh, A. G. Suppression of the coffee-ring effect by shape-dependent capillary interactions. Nature 476, 308 (2011).
Mampallil, D. & Eral, H. B. A review on suppression and utilization of the coffee-ring effect. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 252, 38 (2018).
Liu, Y. et al. Fluorescent microarrays of in situ crystallized perovskite nanocomposites fabricated for patterned applications by using inkjet printing. ACS Nano 13, 2042 (2019).
Zhu, M. et al. Electrohydrodynamically printed high-resolution full-color hybrid perovskites. Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1903294 (2019).
Chen, M., Xu, Z., Kim, J. H., Seol, S. K. & Kim, J. T. Meniscus-on-demand parallel 3D nanoprinting. ACS Nano 12, 4172 (2018).
Zhu, M. et al. Electrohydrodynamically printed high-resolution full-color hybrid perovskites. Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1903294 (2019).
Zhan, W. et al. In situ patterning perovskite quantum qots by direct laser writing fabrication. ACS Photon. 8, 765–770 (2021).
Steele, J. A. et al. Direct laser writing of δ-to a-phase transformation in formamidinium lead iodide. ACS Nano 11, 8072–8083 (2017).
Chou, S. S. et al. Laser direct write synthesis of lead halide perovskites. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 3736 (2016).
Huang, X. et al. Reversible 3D laser printing of perovskite quantum dots inside a transparent medium. Nat. Photon. 14, 82–88 (2020).
Liu, D. et al. Direct optical patterning of perovskite nanocrystals with ligand cross-linkers. Sci. Adv. 8, eabm8433 (2022). This study reports a universal method for the photolithographic patterning of perovskite nanocrystals based on ultraviolet light, resulting in PeLEDs with a record efficiency.
Liu, S.-F. et al. 3D nanoprinting of semiconductor quantum dots by photoexcitation-induced chemical bonding. Science 377, 1112–1116 (2022).
Lu, S. et al. Beyond a linker: the role of photochemistry of crosslinkers in the direct optical patterning of colloidal nanocrystals. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 61, e202202633 (2022).
Brittman, S. et al. Controlling crystallization to imprint nanophotonic structures into halide perovskites using soft lithography. J. Mater. Chem. C. 5, 8301 (2017).
Mao, J. et al. Novel direct nanopatterning approach to fabricate periodically nanostructured perovskite for optoelectronic applications. Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1606525 (2017).
Kim, W. et al. Oriented grains with preferred low-angle grain boundaries in halide perovskite films by pressure-induced crystallization. Adv. Energy Mater. 8, 1702369 (2017).
Pourdavoud, N. et al. Photonic nanostructures patterned by thermal nanoimprint directly into organo-metal halide perovskites. Adv. Mater. 29, 1605003 (2017).
Jeong, B. et al. Polymer-assisted nanoimprinting for environment-and phase-stable perovskite nanopatterns. ACS Nano 14, 1645 (2020).
Feng, J. et al. “Liquid knife” to fabricate patterning single-crystalline perovskite microplates toward high-performance laser arrays. Adv. Mater. 28, 3732 (2016).
Fan, X. et al. Hierarchical confined assembly of bilayer heterostructures with programmable patterns. ACS Mater. Lett. 4, 770–778 (2022).
Wang, K. et al. Geometry-programmable perovskite microlaser patterns for two-dimensional optical encryption. Nano Lett. 21, 6792–6799 (2021).
Wu, J. et al. Pinhole-free hybrid perovskite film with arbitrarily-shaped micro-patterns for functional optoelectronic devices. Nano Lett. 17, 3563–3569 (2017).
Wu, J. et al. Perovskite single-crystal microarrays for efficient photovoltaic devices. Chem. Mater. 30, 4590–4596 (2018).
Sun, Y. et al. A three-dimensional confined crystallization strategy toward controllable growth of high-quality and large-area perovskite single crystals. Adv. Funct. Mater. 32, 2112758 (2022).
Zhang, D. et al. Large-scale planar and spherical light-emitting diodes based on arrays of perovskite quantum wires. Nat. Photon. 16, 284–290 (2022). This study reports quantum-scale perovskite wire arrays with superior radiative efficiencies and stabilities, obtained using a porous alumina membrane.
Gu, L. et al. 3D Arrays of 1024-pixel image sensors based on lead halide perovskite nanowires. Adv. Mater. 28, 9713 (2016).
Chiang, Y.-H., Anaya, M. & Stranks, S. D. Multisource vacuum deposition of methylammonium-free perovskite solar cells. ACS Energy Lett. 5, 2498–2504 (2020).
Li, H. et al. Sequential vacuum-evaporated perovskite solar cells with more than 24% efficiency. Sci. Adv. 8, eabo7422 (2022).
Wang, S. et al. Over 24% efficient MA-free CsxFA1-xPbX3 perovskite solar cells. Joule 6, 1344–1356 (2022).
Wei, H. et al. Flash-evaporation printing methodology for perovskite thin films. NPG Asia Mater. 9, e395 (2017).
Alias, M. S. et al. Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33, 051207 (2015).
Alias, M. S. et al. Enhanced etching, surface damage recovery, and submicron patterning of hybrid perovskites using a chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam for subwavelength grating photonic applications. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 137 (2016).
Hou, S. et al. Concurrent inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous emission from all inorganic perovskite photonic crystals. ACS Photon. 6, 1331–1337 (2019).
Gao, Y. et al. Lead halide perovskite nanostructures for dynamic color display. ACS Nano 12, 8847–8854 (2018).
Hsu, C. et al. Efficient mini/micro-perovskite light-emitting diodes. Cell Rep. Phys. Sci. 2, 100582 (2021).
Li, Y. et al. Coffee-stain-free perovskite film for efficient printed light-emitting diode. Adv. Opt. Mater. 9, 2100553 (2021).
Wang, J. et al. Inkjet-printed full-color matrix quasi-two-dimensional perovskite light-emitting diodes. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 13, 41773–41781 (2021).
Zou, C., Chang, C., Sun, D., Bohringer, K. F. & Lin, L. Y. Photolithographic patterning of perovskite thin films for multicolor display applications. Nano Lett. 20, 3710–3717 (2020).
Zhou, Y., Poli, I., Meggiolaro, D., Angelis, F. D. & Petrozza, A. Defect activity in metal halide perovskites with wide and narrow bandgap. Nat. Rev. Mater. 6, 986–1002 (2021).
Yin, Y. et al. Full-color micro-LED display with CsPbBr3 perovskite and CdSe quantum dots as color conversion layers. Adv. Mater. Tech. 5, 2000251 (2020).
Mei, S. et al. High-bandwidth white-light system combining a micro-LED with perovskite quantum dots for visible light communication. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 5641–5648 (2018).
Wang, K. et al. Wettability-guided screen printing of perovskite microlaser arrays for current-driven displays. Adv. Mater. 32, 2001999 (2020).
Liang, J. et al. Screen-overprinted perovskite RGB microdisk arrays based on wet solute-chemical dynamics for full-color laser displays. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 14, 1774–1782 (2022).
Liang, J. et al. Ultrahigh color rendering in RGB perovskite micro-light emitting diode arrays with resonance-enhanced photon recycling for next generation displays. Adv. Opt. Mater. 10, 2101642 (2022). This study presents a self-emissive RGB micro-PeLED array driven by microelectrodes that can dynamically show colourful Arabic numbers.
Zou, C., Liu, Y., Ginger, D. S. & Lin, L. Y. Suppressing efficiency roll-off at high current densities for ultra-bright green perovskite light-emitting diodes. ACS Nano 14, 6076–6086 (2020).
Kim, H. et al. Hybrid perovskite light emitting diodes under intense electrical excitation. Nat. Commun. 9, 4893 (2018).
Peng, B. et al. Pattern-selective molecular epitaxial growth of single-crystalline perovskite arrays toward ultrasensitive and ultrafast photodetector. Nano Lett. 22, 2948–2955 (2022).
Wang, K. et al. Alternating current electroluminescence from GaN-based nanorod light-emitting diodes. Opt. Laser Tech. 140, 107044 (2021).
Waag, A. et al. The nanorod approach: GaN NanoLEDs for solid state lighting. Phys. Status Sol. C 8, 2296–2301 (2011).
The authors disclose support for the research of this work from Beijing Natural Science Foundation (JQ21005), the National Key R&D Program of China (2021YFB3800100, 2021YFB3800101), the open research fund of Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory (2022SLABFK07), National Natural Science Foundation of China (91733301), the R&D Fruit Fund (20210001) and the Central Guidance on Local Science and Technology Development Fund of Beijing Province (Z201100004320007). The authors also thank X. Wang from School of Physics at Peking University for his professional and helpful discussion on micro-LEDs.
X.Y., L.M., M.L., X.W. and C.L. work in Leyard Optoelectronic, a company commercializing micro-LED displays. L.L., Q.G. and R.Z. declare no competing interests.
Peer review information
Nature Reviews Materials thanks Myoung Hoon Song and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.
About this article
Cite this article
Yang, X., Ma, L., Li, L. et al. Towards micro-PeLED displays. Nat Rev Mater (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41578-022-00522-0