The miniaturization of conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a growing trend for emerging virtual and augmented reality and ultrahigh-resolution display applications. However, at present, the downscaling and integration of group III–V LED chips face great challenges, including efficiency droop, inhomogeneous emissions and side-wall losses upon top-down etching and mass-transfer processing. Perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs) are a promising alternative candidate for displays. Within a decade, they have achieved competitive performance owing to their narrowband emission, wide colour gamut and facile fabrication protocols. In particular, solution-processed perovskite emitting layers can be arranged into microscale pixels using various patterning techniques and show great potential for the development of advanced microscale PeLED (micro-PeLED) devices. In this Perspective article, we summarize the recent progress in perovskite patterning techniques and in the fabrication of micro-PeLED demos. We also share our viewpoint regarding the unique advantages of hybrid perovskites for microscale and nanoscale miniaturization, and we conclude by discussing the future challenges and technical roadmap for the development of micro-PeLED displays.
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The authors disclose support for the research of this work from Beijing Natural Science Foundation (JQ21005), the National Key R&D Program of China (2021YFB3800100, 2021YFB3800101), the open research fund of Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory (2022SLABFK07), National Natural Science Foundation of China (91733301), the R&D Fruit Fund (20210001) and the Central Guidance on Local Science and Technology Development Fund of Beijing Province (Z201100004320007). The authors also thank X. Wang from School of Physics at Peking University for his professional and helpful discussion on micro-LEDs.
X.Y., L.M., M.L., X.W. and C.L. work in Leyard Optoelectronic, a company commercializing micro-LED displays. L.L., Q.G. and R.Z. declare no competing interests.
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Yang, X., Ma, L., Li, L. et al. Towards micro-PeLED displays. Nat Rev Mater 8, 341–353 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41578-022-00522-0