Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) constitute a rich library of materials with huge potential for disruptive optoelectronic technologies. Their main strength comes from the possibility of easily tuning their bandgap to integrate them in devices with different functionalities — in principle. In reality, this cannot be achieved yet. In fact, whereas defect tolerance can be claimed for MHPs with a bandgap of about 1.6 eV, the model system that is the object of intense investigations, MHPs with lower and higher bandgaps are far from being defect-tolerant. These materials show various forms of instabilities that are mainly driven by strong defect activity. Here we critically assess the most recent advances in elucidating the physical and chemical activity of defects in both high-bandgap and low-bandgap MHPs, while correlating it to performance and stability losses, especially for solar cells, the driving application for these materials. We also provide an overview of the strategies so far implemented to eventually overcome the remaining materials-based and device-based challenges.
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This work has been funded by the European Union project PERT PV under grant agreement no. 763977 and ERC project SOPHY under grant agreement N 771528.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Zhou, Y., Poli, I., Meggiolaro, D. et al. Defect activity in metal halide perovskites with wide and narrow bandgap. Nat Rev Mater 6, 986–1002 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41578-021-00331-x
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