Nd–Fe–B permanent magnets are essential for the transition to clean energy and mobility. Given the burgeoning demand for neodymium and other rare earths, we discuss the role of recycling and the need for government intervention in securing a sustainable rare-earth supply.
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China has only 37% of the world’s total REE reserves: https://www.usgs.gov/centers/nmic/mineral-commodity-summaries
EU-funded Horizon 2020 SUSMAGPRO project: https://www.susmagpro.eu/
European Raw Materials Alliance: https://erma.eu/
Important projects of common European interest: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52014XC0620(01)&from=EN
The USA announced in February 2021: https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202102/1214738.shtml
The USA is taking measures to try to reduce its reliance on Chinese raw materials: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-rareearths-lynas-corp-idUSKBN29Q30O
This group of metals is considered the most critical of raw materials: https://ec.europa.eu/docsroom/documents/42849
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Binnemans, K., McGuiness, P. & Jones, P.T. Rare-earth recycling needs market intervention. Nat Rev Mater 6, 459–461 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41578-021-00308-w