Disordered multicomponent systems, occupying the mostly uncharted centres of phase diagrams, were proposed in 2004 as innovative materials with promising applications. The idea was to maximize the configurational entropy to stabilize (near) equimolar mixtures and achieve more robust systems, which became known as high-entropy materials. Initial research focused mainly on metal alloys and nitride films. In 2015, entropy stabilization was demonstrated in a mixture of oxides. Other high-entropy disordered ceramics rapidly followed, stimulating the addition of more components to obtain materials expressing a blend of properties, often highly enhanced. The systems were soon proven to be useful in wide-ranging technologies, including thermal barrier coatings, thermoelectrics, catalysts, batteries and wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant coatings. In this Review, we discuss the current state of the disordered ceramics field by examining the applications and the high-entropy features fuelling them, covering both theoretical predictions and experimental results. The influence of entropy is unavoidable and can no longer be ignored. In the space of ceramics, it leads to new materials that, both as bulk and thin films, will play important roles in technology in the decades to come.
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The authors thank K. Vecchio, J.-P. Maria, E. Opila, P. Hopkins, J. Luo, D. Brenner, D. Hicks, Y. Lederer, O. Levy and X. Campilongo for fruitful discussions. Research sponsored by DOD-ONR (N00014-15-1-2863, N00014-16-1-2326, N00014-17-1-2876).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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AB3C6_cI80_206_a_d_e (bixbyite structure): http://aflow.org/CrystalDatabase/AB3C6_cI80_206_a_d_e
AB3C_oP20_62_c_cd_a (orthorhombic perovskite structure): http://aflow.org/CrystalDatabase/AB3C_oP20_62_c_cd_a
A3B4_cF56_227_ad_e (spinel structure): http://aflow.org/CrystalDatabase/A3B4_cF56_227_ad_e
A2B2C7_cF88_227_c_d_af (pyrochlore structure): http://aflow.org/CrystalDatabase/A2B2C7_cF88_227_c_d_af
A7B2C2_mC22_12_aij_h_i (thortveitite structure): http://aflow.org/CrystalDatabase/A7B2C2_mC22_12_aij_h_i
AB_cF8_225_a_b (rock-salt structure): http://aflow.org/CrystalDatabase/AB_cF8_225_a_b
AB2_cF12_225_a_c (fluorite structure): http://aflow.org/CrystalDatabase/AB2_cF12_225_a_c
AB3C_cP5_221_a_c_b (cubic perovskite structure): http://aflow.org/CrystalDatabase/AB3C_cP5_221_a_c_b
AB2_hP3_191_a_d (AlB 2 structure): http://aflow.org/CrystalDatabase/AB2_hP3_191_a_d
AB2_hP9_180_d_j (C40 structure): http://aflow.org/CrystalDatabase/AB2_hP9_180_d_j
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Oses, C., Toher, C. & Curtarolo, S. High-entropy ceramics. Nat Rev Mater 5, 295–309 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41578-019-0170-8
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