Antagonistic actuation and stiffness control in soft inflatable robots

Soft robots promise solutions for a wide range of applications that cannot be achieved with traditional, rigid-component robots. A key challenge is the creation of robotic structures that can vary their stiffness at will, for example, by using antagonistic actuators, to optimize their interaction with the environment and be able to exert high forces.

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The work described in this paper was partially funded by the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission under grant agreement 287728 in the framework of EU project STIFF-FLOP.

Author information


  1. Centre for Advanced Robotics @ Queen Mary, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, UK

    • Kaspar Althoefer


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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kaspar Althoefer.