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Building a T cell compartment: how immune cell development shapes function

Abstract

We are just beginning to understand the diversity of the peripheral T cell compartment, which arises from the specialization of different T cell subsets and the plasticity of individual naive T cells to adopt different fates. Although the progeny of a single T cell can differentiate into many phenotypes following infection, individual T cells are biased towards particular phenotypes. These biases are typically ascribed to random factors that occur during and after antigenic stimulation. However, the T cell compartment does not remain static with age, and shifting immune challenges during ontogeny give rise to T cells with distinct functional properties. Here, we argue that the developmental history of naive T cells creates a ‘hidden layer’ of diversity that persists into adulthood. Insight into this diversity can provide a new perspective on immunity and immunotherapy across the lifespan.

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Fig. 1: Immune challenges and solutions during development.
Fig. 2: Naive T cell subsets differ in their ability to respond to antigens and inflammation.
Fig. 3: Evolution and adaptation of the T cell compartment with progressing age.

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Correspondence to Miles P. Davenport.

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Nature Reviews Immunology thanks T. Burt and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Davenport, M.P., Smith, N.L. & Rudd, B.D. Building a T cell compartment: how immune cell development shapes function. Nat Rev Immunol 20, 499–506 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-0332-3

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