Table 1 Possible therapeutic targets linked to macrophage activation in COVID-19

From: Pathological inflammation in patients with COVID-19: a key role for monocytes and macrophages

Pathway or molecular targetPotential role of target in COVID-19Drug typeDrug nameClinicalTrials.gov reference numbera
IL-6 signallingPro-inflammatoryAnti-IL-6 receptorTocilizumabNCT04306705; NCT04346355; NCT04320615; NCT04317092; NCT04331808; NCT04335071; NCT04331795; NCT04322773; NCT04333914; NCT04330638
SarilumabNCT04321993; NCT04341870; NCT04315298; NCT04322773
Anti-IL-6SiltuximabNCT04330638
ClazakizumabNCT04348500; NCT04343989
IL-1β signallingPro-inflammatoryIL-1 receptor antagonistAnakinraNCT04339712; NCT04341584; NCT04324021; NCT04330638
Inflammasome/NLRP3Pro-inflammatoryAnti-IL-1βCanakinumabNCT04330638
IRAK4Pro-inflammatory; mediates TLR and IL-1β signallingIRAK4 inhibitorPF-06650833; CA-4948NA
TLR4–TRIF signallingPro-inflammatoryVariousNo drug approvedNA
TNF signallingPro-inflammatoryAnti-TNFInfliximab; adalimumab; golimumabNA
Fab'-PEGCertolizumabNA
Fusion TNFR2–IgG1–FcEtanerceptNA
GM-CSF signallingPro-inflammatory; drives tissue repair in lungsAnti-GM-CSFTJ003234NCT04341116
LenzilumabNCT04351152
GM-CSFSargramostimNCT04326920
M-CSF receptor signallingPromotes macrophage differentiation and survivalM-CSF receptor inhibitorAxatilimabIn progress
IFNγPro-inflammatoryAnti-IFNγEmapalumabNCT04324021
JAK–STAT signallingPathway mediates cytokine signallingJAK1/JAK2 inhibitorsBaricitinibNCT04321993; NCT04340232; NCT04320277
RuxolitinibNCT04348071; NCT04331665; NCT04334044; NCT04354714
JAK1/JAK3 inhibitorTofacitinibNCT04332042
CCR2Promotes monocyte egress from the bone marrow and monocyte recruitment in tissuesCCR2 and CCR5 antagonistBMS-813160 (not approved)NA
Cenicriviroc (not approved)Clinical trial in progress
Anti-CCR2MLN1202 (not approved)NA
CCR5Promotes monocyte and T cell recruitment in tissuesAnti-CCR5LeronlimabNCT04347239; NCT04343651
Complement component C5Drives complement-mediated cell death through formation of membrane attack complexAnti-C5EculizumabNCT04288713
  1. CCR, CC-chemokine receptor; GM-CSF, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor; IFNγ, interferon-γ; JAK, Janus kinase; M-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor; NA, not applicable; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; TLR, Toll-like receptor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; TNFR2, tumour necrosis factor receptor 2. aIncludes trials not actively recruiting yet at the time of publication.