Table 2 COVID-19 vaccine candidates in or entering clinical trials

From: Immunological considerations for COVID-19 vaccine strategies

Vaccine Platform Developer Clinical trial phase Immunization attributes Preclinical data Clinical data Clinical Trial registrations Refs
ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AZD-1222)a ChAd-vectored, non-replicating University of Oxford, AstraZeneca Phases I–III in UK, South Africa, USA and Brazil Expressing S protein; single dose or two repeated doses of IM injection Published data showing prevention of pneumonia but not transmission in NHPs Published data showing safety and good induction of neutralizing antibodies and T cell activation in >90% of vaccinees ISRCTN89951424, EudraCT 2020-001228-32, PACTR202006922165132, EudraCT 2020-001072-15, NCT04324606 114,115
Ad5-nCoV Ad5-vectored, non-replicating CanSino Biologics Inc., Beijing Institute of Biotechnology Phases I and II; phase II studies in China and Canada Expressing S protein; single dose of IM injection NA Published data showing high dose unsafe, low and medium doses elicit neutralizing antibodies in ~50–60% of vaccinees; antibody levels negatively associated with pre-existing antivector immunity and age (>55 years) ChiCTR2000031781, ChiCTR2000030906, NCT04341389 98,99
mRNA-1273a Lipid nanoparticle–mRNA Moderna, NIAID Phases I–III in USA Expressing S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection Published report showing induction of neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T cells, as well as protection, in mouse models Published data showing safety, but highest dose causes severe AEs in 20% of vaccinees; induction of neutralizing antibodies in 100% of vaccinees and CD4+ T cell responses in some NCT04405076, NCT04283461, NCT04470427 145,146
PiCoVacc Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Sinovac Biotech Phases I–III; phase III in China and Brazil Multiple viral antigens; two repeated doses of IM injection Published data from NHP model showing protection Interim phase I/II information released to indicate safety and immunogenicity NCT04456595, NCT04383574, NCT04352608 126
NVX-CoV2373a Protein subunit Novavax Phases I and II in Australia Recombinant S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection Unpublished information indicates high levels of S-specific neutralizing antibodies NA NCT04368988
BNT162b1a Lipid nanoparticle–mRNA BioNTech, Pfizer, Fosun Pharma Phases I–III; dose- and candidate-finding in Germany, USA and China RBD of S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection Published data from mouse model showing strong antibody and T cell responses Submitted report indicating safety, high neutralizing antibody titres and TH1 cell-type CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses NCT04368728, Eudra CT 020-001038-36, ChiCTR2000034825 147,148,166
BBIBP-CorV Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Sinopharm, Beijing Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd Phases I–III in China and United Arab Emirates Multiple viral antigens; two repeated doses of IM injection Published data from rodents, rabbits and NHP models showing neutralizing antibodies and protection Interim information released to indicate safety and high antibody conversion rates in vaccinees ChiCTR2000034780, ChiCTR2000032459 127
COVID-19 vaccine Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Sinopharm, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd Phases I–III in China Multiple viral antigens; two repeated doses of IM injection NA Interim information released to indicate safety ChiCTR2000034780, ChiCTR2000031809
INO-4800a Plasmid DNA Inovio Pharmaceuticals, International Vaccine Institute Phases I–III in USA Expressing S protein; two repeated doses of intradermal injection plus electroporation Published data showing immunogenicity in mice and guinea pigs Interim information released to indicate safety and overall immune responses NCT04447781, NCT04336410 157
LNP-nCoVsaRNA Lipid nanoparticle–saRNA Imperial College London, Morningside Ventures Phases I and II in UK Expressing S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection Published report showing induction of neutralizing antibodies and TH1 cell responses in mouse models NA ISRCTN17072692 167
COVID-19 vaccine Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Phases I and II in China Multiple viral antigens; two repeated doses of IM injection NA NA NCT04470609, NCT04412538
CVnCoV Lipid nanoparticle–mRNA CureVac Phase I in Germany and Belgium Expressing S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection Information released suggesting protection in animal models NA NCT04449276
Gam-COVID-Vac Lyo Ad5- or Ad26-vectored, non-replicating Gameleya Research Institute Phases I and II in Russia Single dose and heterologous Ad26 prime–Ad5 boost doses of IM injection NA NA NCT04436471, NCT04437875
GX-19 Plasmid DNA Genexine Consortium Phases I and II in South Korea Expressing S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection NA NA NCT04445389
SCB-2019 Protein subunit Clover Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline, Dynavax Phase I in Australia Trimeric S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection Information released suggesting induction of neutralizing antibodies in multiple animal species NA NCT04405908
COVID-19 vaccine Protein subunit Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biologic Pharmacy, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Phases I and II in China Dimeric RBD; two or three repeated doses of IM injection NA NA NCT04445194, NCT04466085
ARCoV mRNA Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Walvax Biotechnology, Suzhou Abogen Biosciences Phase I in China Expressing S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection? Information released suggesting induction of neutralizing antibodies in mice and NHPs NA ChiCTR2000034112
COVID-19 vaccine Plasmid DNA AnGes Inc., Osaka University, Takara Bio Phases I and II in Japan Expressing S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection NA NA JapicCTI-205328, NCT04463472
COVID-19 vaccine Virus-like particle Medicago, Laval University Phase I in Canada Multiple viral antigens; two repeated doses of IM injection Information released to indicate antibody responses in mice NA NCT04450004
Lunar-COV19 Self-replicating mRNA Arcturus Therapeutics, Duke-National University of Singapore Phases I and II to be launched in Singapore Expressing S protein; one dose of IM injection Information released to indicate high levels of neutralizing antibodies after single injection NA NCT04480957
Covaxin Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Bharat Biotech, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Virology Phases I and II to be launched in India Multiple viral antigens; two repeated doses of IM injection NA NA CTRI/2020/07/026300, NCT04471519
ZyCov-D Plasmid DNA Zydus Cadila Phases I and II to be launched in India Expressing S protein; three repeated doses of intradermal injection Information released to indicate immune responses in several animal species NA CTRI/2020/07/026352
COVID-19 vaccine Protein subunit University of Queensland Phase I in Australia Molecular clamp-stabilized S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection Information released to indicate neutralizing antibodies in animal models Information released to indicate safety ACTRN12620000674932p
Ad26.COV2-Sa Ad26-vectored, non-replicating Johnson & Johnson Phases I and II in USA and Belgium Expressing S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection Published data from NHPs showing induction of robust neutralizing antibodies and protection by single dose NA NCT04436276 110
KBP-COVID-19 Protein subunit Kentucky Bioprocessing Inc. Phases I and II in USA Recombinant RBD-based protein; two repeated doses of IM injection NA NA NCT04473690
COVID-19 vaccinea VSV-vectored, replicating Merck, IAVI Phases I and II to be launched in USA? Expressing S protein; IM injection NA NA
COVAX19 Protein subunit Vaxine Pty Ltd, Medytox, Central Adelaide Local Health Network Phase I in Australia Recombinant S protein with Advax-SM adjuvant; single escalating dose of IM injection NA NA NCT04453852
MVC-COV1901 Protein subunit Medigen Vaccine Biologics, Dynavax Phase I to be launched in Taiwan Recombinant S protein; two repeated doses of IM injection Information released indicating induction of neutralizing antibodies and T cells NA NCT04487210
COVID-19 vaccine Plasmid DNA Entos Pharmaceuticals Phases I and II to be launched in Canada and USA Expressing S protein, IM injection Information released indicating induction of neutralizing antibodies and T cells NA
  1. Ad5, human serotype 5 adenovirus; Ad26, human serotype 26 adenovirus; AEs, adverse events; ChAd, chimpanzee adenovirus; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; IM, intramuscular; NA, not available; NHP, non-human primate; RBD, receptor-binding domain; saRNA, self-amplifying RNA; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; S protein, spike protein; TH1 cell, T helper 1 cell; VSV, vesicular stomatitis virus. aSelected for US Operation Warp Speed.