Chronic consumption of a Western diet along with sedentary behaviour causes chronic metabolic inflammation (termed metaflammation) and is ‘memorized’ by innate immune cells through long-lasting metabolic and epigenetic cellular reprogramming. Lifestyle-associated pathologies have reached epidemic proportions and require a better understanding of the causes of metaflammation and ways to translate this to measures that protect the public from unhealthy diets.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $21.58 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Olshansky, S. J. et al. A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N. Engl. J. Med. 352, 1138–1145 (2005).
Ludwig, D. S. Lifespan weighed down by diet. JAMA 315, 2269–2270 (2016).
Reither, E. N., Olshansky, S. J. & Yang, Y. New forecasting methodology indicates more disease and earlier mortality ahead for today’s younger Americans. Health Aff. (Millwood) 30, 1562–1568 (2011).
David, L. A. et al. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Nature 505, 559–563 (2014).
Wilson, Q. N. et al. Greater microbial translocation and vulnerability to metabolic disease in healthy aged female monkeys. Sci. Rep. 8, 11373 (2018).
Netea, M. et al. Trained immunity: a program of innate immune memory in health and disease. Science 352, aaf1098 (2016).
Christ, A. et al. Western diet triggers NLRP3-dependent innate immune reprogramming. Cell 172, 162–175 (2018).
Perez, M. F. & Lehner, B. Intergenerational and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in animals. Nature 21, 143–151 (2019).
Bhaskaran, K. et al. Association of BMI with overall and cause-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of 3.6 million adults in the UK. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 6, 944–953 (2018).
Li, Y. et al. Impact of healthy lifestyle factors on life expectancies in the US population. Circulation 138, 345–355 (2018).
This work was supported by the European Research Council consolidator grant InflammAct, the US National Institutes of Health grant 1R01HL112661 and grants provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft EXC2151 — 390873048, SFB 1123; TRRs 83, 57.
E.L. is co-founder and consultant of IFM Therapeutics. A.C. declares no competing interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Christ, A., Latz, E. The Western lifestyle has lasting effects on metaflammation. Nat Rev Immunol 19, 267–268 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0156-1
Molecular Omics (2021)
Advances in Nutrition (2021)
A narrative review on the potential of tomato and lycopene for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (2021)