Hundreds of microRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed in distinct spatial and temporal patterns during embryonic and postnatal mouse development. The loss of all miRNAs through the deletion of critical miRNA biogenesis factors results in early lethality. The function of each miRNA stems from their cumulative negative regulation of multiple mRNA targets expressed in a particular cell type. During development, miRNAs often coordinate the timing and direction of cell fate transitions. In adults, miRNAs frequently contribute to organismal fitness through homeostatic roles in physiology. Here, we review how the recent dissection of miRNA-knockout phenotypes in mice as well as advances related to their targets, dosage, and interactions have collectively informed our understanding of the roles of miRNAs in mammalian development and adaptive responses.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $4.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Winter, J., Jung, S., Keller, S., Gregory, R. I. & Diederichs, S. Many roads to maturity: microRNA biogenesis pathways and their regulation. Nat. Cell Biol. 11, 228–234 (2009).
Agarwal, V., Bell, G. W., Nam, J. W. & Bartel, D. P. Predicting effective microRNA target sites in mammalian mRNAs. eLife 4, e05005 (2015).
Bartel, D. P. Metazoan microRNAs. Cell 173, 20–51 (2018). This is an expansive review of many aspects of miRNA biology.
Jonas, S. & Izaurralde, E. Towards a molecular understanding of microRNA-mediated gene silencing. Nat. Rev. Genet. 16, 421–433 (2015).
Wang, Y., Medvid, R., Melton, C., Jaenisch, R. & Blelloch, R. DGCR8 is essential for microRNA biogenesis and silencing of embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Nat. Genet. 39, 380–385 (2007).
Bernstein, E. et al. Dicer is essential for mouse development. Nat. Genet. 35, 215–217 (2003).
Wienholds, E., Koudijs, M. J., van Eeden, F. J., Cuppen, E. & Plasterk, R. H. The microRNA-producing enzyme Dicer1 is essential for zebrafish development. Nat. Genet. 35, 217–218 (2003).
Giraldez, A. J. et al. MicroRNAs regulate brain morphogenesis in zebrafish. Science 308, 833–838 (2005).
Grishok, A. et al. Genes and mechanisms related to RNA interference regulate expression of the small temporal RNAs that control C. elegans developmental timing. Cell 106, 23–34 (2001).
Ketting, R. F. et al. Dicer functions in RNA interference and in synthesis of small RNA involved in developmental timing in C. elegans. Genes Dev. 15, 2654–2659 (2001).
Lee, Y. S. et al. Distinct roles for Drosophila Dicer-1 and Dicer-2 in the siRNA/miRNA silencing pathways. Cell 117, 69–81 (2004).
Suh, N. et al. MicroRNA function is globally suppressed in mouse oocytes and early embryos. Curr. Biol. 20, 271–277 (2010).
Spruce, T. et al. An early developmental role for miRNAs in the maintenance of extraembryonic stem cells in the mouse embryo. Dev. Cell 19, 207–219 (2010).
Miska, E. A. et al. Most Caenorhabditis elegans microRNAs are individually not essential for development or viability. PLoS Genet. 3, e215 (2007).
Alvarez-Saavedra, E. & Horvitz, H. R. Many families of C. elegans microRNAs are not essential for development or viability. Curr. Biol. 20, 367–373 (2010).
Park, C. Y. et al. A resource for the conditional ablation of microRNAs in the mouse. Cell Rep. 1, 385–391 (2012).
Chen, Y. W. et al. Systematic study of Drosophila microRNA functions using a collection of targeted knockout mutations. Dev. Cell 31, 784–800 (2014).
Amin, N. D. et al. Loss of motoneuron-specific microRNA-218 causes systemic neuromuscular failure. Science 350, 1525–1529 (2015).
Wienholds, E. & Plasterk, R. H. MicroRNA function in animal development. FEBS Lett. 579, 5911–5922 (2005).
Zhao, T. et al. A complex system of small RNAs in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genes Dev. 21, 1190–1203 (2007).
Hertel, J. et al. The expansion of the metazoan microRNA repertoire. BMC Genom. 7, 25 (2006).
Sempere, L. F., Cole, C. N., McPeek, M. A. & Peterson, K. J. The phylogenetic distribution of metazoan microRNAs: insights into evolutionary complexity and constraint. J. Exp. Zool. B Mol. Dev. Evol. 306, 575–588 (2006).
Prochnik, S. E., Rokhsar, D. S. & Aboobaker, A. A. Evidence for a microRNA expansion in the bilaterian ancestor. Dev. Genes Evol. 217, 73–77 (2007).
Heimberg, A. M., Sempere, L. F., Moy, V. N., Donoghue, P. C. & Peterson, K. J. MicroRNAs and the advent of vertebrate morphological complexity. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2946–2950 (2008).
Hertel, J. & Stadler, P. F. The expansion of animal microRNA families revisited. Life 5, 905–920 (2015).
Cheng, C., Bhardwaj, N. & Gerstein, M. The relationship between the evolution of microRNA targets and the length of their UTRs. BMC Genom. 10, 431 (2009).
Wienholds, E. et al. MicroRNA expression in zebrafish embryonic development. Science 309, 310–311 (2005).
Ludwig, N. et al. Distribution of miRNA expression across human tissues. Nucleic Acids Res. 44, 3865–3877 (2016).
Lagos-Quintana, M. et al. Identification of tissue-specific microRNAs from mouse. Curr. Biol. 12, 735–739 (2002).
Rodriguez, A., Griffiths-Jones, S., Ashurst, J. L. & Bradley, A. Identification of mammalian microRNA host genes and transcription units. Genome Res. 14, 1902–1910 (2004).
Chen, K. & Rajewsky, N. The evolution of gene regulation by transcription factors and microRNAs. Nat. Rev. Genet. 8, 93–103 (2007).
Lee, R. C., Feinbaum, R. L. & Ambros, V. The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14. Cell 75, 843–854 (1993).
Chalfie, M., Horvitz, H. R. & Sulston, J. E. Mutations that lead to reiterations in the cell lineages of C. elegans. Cell 24, 59–69 (1981).
Reinhart, B. J. et al. The 21-nucleotide let-7 RNA regulates developmental timing in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 403, 901–906 (2000).
Mansfield, J. H. et al. MicroRNA-responsive ‘sensor’ transgenes uncover Hox-like and other developmentally regulated patterns of vertebrate microRNA expression. Nat. Genet. 36, 1079–1083 (2004).
Mallo, M. & Alonso, C. R. The regulation of Hox gene expression during animal development. Development 140, 3951–3963 (2013).
Yekta, S., Shih, I. H. & Bartel, D. P. MicroRNA-directed cleavage of HOXB8 mRNA. Science 304, 594–596 (2004).
Hornstein, E. et al. The microRNA miR-196 acts upstream of Hoxb8 and Shh in limb development. Nature 438, 671–674 (2005).
Visvanathan, J., Lee, S., Lee, B., Lee, J. W. & Lee, S. K. The microRNA miR-124 antagonizes the anti-neural REST/SCP1 pathway during embryonic CNS development. Genes Dev. 21, 744–749 (2007).
Cheng, L. C., Pastrana, E., Tavazoie, M. & Doetsch, F. miR-124 regulates adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone stem cell niche. Nat. Neurosci. 12, 399–408 (2009).
Peng, C. et al. Termination of cell-type specification gene programs by the miR-183 cluster determines the population sizes of low-threshold mechanosensitive neurons. Development 145, dev165613 (2018).
Parchem, R. J. et al. miR-302 is required for timing of neural differentiation, neural tube closure, and embryonic viability. Cell Rep. 12, 760–773 (2015).
Tian, Y. et al. A microRNA-Hippo pathway that promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac regeneration in mice. Sci. Transl. Med. 7, 279ra38 (2015).
Paikari, A., C, D. B., Saw, D. & Blelloch, R. The eutheria-specific miR-290 cluster modulates placental growth and maternal-fetal transport. Development 144, 3731–3743 (2017).
Johnston, R. J. Jr, Chang, S., Etchberger, J. F., Ortiz, C. O. & Hobert, O. MicroRNAs acting in a double-negative feedback loop to control a neuronal cell fate decision. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12449–12454 (2005).
Liu, W. et al. miR-133a regulates adipocyte browning in vivo. PLoS Genet. 9, e1003626 (2013).
Yoo, A. S., Staahl, B. T., Chen, L. & Crabtree, G. R. MicroRNA-mediated switching of chromatin-remodelling complexes in neural development. Nature 460, 642–646 (2009).
Wang, D. et al. MicroRNA-205 controls neonatal expansion of skin stem cells by modulating the PI(3)K pathway. Nat. Cell Biol. 15, 1153–1163 (2013).
Hu, W. et al. miR-29a maintains mouse hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal by regulating Dnmt3a. Blood 125, 2206–2216 (2015).
Song, R. et al. miR-34/449 miRNAs are required for motile ciliogenesis by repressing cp110. Nature 510, 115–120 (2014). This article illustrates a common function, cilial maturation, of the mir-34/mir-449 family across different cell types.
Fededa, J. P. et al. MicroRNA-34/449 controls mitotic spindle orientation during mammalian cortex development. EMBO J. 35, 2386–2398 (2016).
Fletcher, R. B., Das, D. & Ngai, J. Creating lineage trajectory maps via integration of single-cell RNA-sequencing and lineage tracing: integrating transgenic lineage tracing and single-cell RNA-sequencing is a robust approach for mapping developmental lineage trajectories and cell fate changes. Bioessays 40, e1800056 (2018).
Hasuwa, H., Ueda, J., Ikawa, M. & Okabe, M. miR-200b and miR-429 function in mouse ovulation and are essential for female fertility. Science 341, 71–73 (2013).
Tan, C. L. et al. MicroRNA-128 governs neuronal excitability and motor behavior in mice. Science 342, 1254–1258 (2013). This article illustrates an essential postnatal miRNA requirement. mir-128-2−/− mice are hyperactive as juveniles before severe seizures and death in 2–3 months.
Li, X., Cassidy, J. J., Reinke, C. A., Fischboeck, S. & Carthew, R. W. A microRNA imparts robustness against environmental fluctuation during development. Cell 137, 273–282 (2009). The authors reveal that mir-7 imparts robustness to D. melanogaster development specifically during temperature fluctuations.
Yu, D. et al. miR-451 protects against erythroid oxidant stress by repressing 14-3-3zeta. Genes Dev. 24, 1620–1633 (2010).
van Rooij, E. et al. Control of stress-dependent cardiac growth and gene expression by a microRNA. Science 316, 575–579 (2007).
Aurora, A. B. et al. MicroRNA-214 protects the mouse heart from ischemic injury by controlling Ca2+ overload and cell death. J. Clin. Invest. 122, 1222–1232 (2012).
Rodriguez, A. et al. Requirement of bic/microRNA-155 for normal immune function. Science 316, 608–611 (2007).
Thai, T. H. et al. Regulation of the germinal center response by microRNA-155. Science 316, 604–608 (2007).
Wang, H. et al. Negative regulation of Hif1a expression and TH17 differentiation by the hypoxia-regulated microRNA miR-210. Nat. Immunol. 15, 393–401 (2014).
Korn, T., Bettelli, E., Oukka, M. & Kuchroo, V. K. IL-17 and Th17 cells. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 27, 485–517 (2009).
Hsin, J. P., Lu, Y., Loeb, G. B., Leslie, C. S. & Rudensky, A. Y. The effect of cellular context on miR-155-mediated gene regulation in four major immune cell types. Nat. Immunol. 19, 1137–1145 (2018). By integrating readouts of mir-155 binding and its impact on expression across different immune cells, the authors reveal the influence of cellular context on miRNA regulation.
Friedman, R. C., Farh, K. K., Burge, C. B. & Bartel, D. P. Most mammalian mRNAs are conserved targets of microRNAs. Genome Res. 19, 92–105 (2009).
Xu, P. et al. Regulation of gene expression by miR-144/451 during mouse erythropoiesis. Blood 133, 2518–2528 (2019).
Freimer, J. W., Hu, T. J. & Blelloch, R. Decoupling the impact of microRNAs on translational repression versus RNA degradation in embryonic stem cells. eLife 7, e38014 (2018).
Nam, J. W. et al. Global analyses of the effect of different cellular contexts on microRNA targeting. Mol. Cell 53, 1031–1043 (2014).
Erhard, F. et al. Widespread context dependency of microRNA-mediated regulation. Genome Res. 24, 906–919 (2014).
Shibata, M., Nakao, H., Kiyonari, H., Abe, T. & Aizawa, S. MicroRNA-9 regulates neurogenesis in mouse telencephalon by targeting multiple transcription factors. J. Neurosci. 31, 3407–3422 (2011).
Krol, J., Loedige, I. & Filipowicz, W. The widespread regulation of microRNA biogenesis, function and decay. Nat. Rev. Genet. 11, 597–610 (2010).
Loffreda, A., Rigamonti, A., Barabino, S. M. L. & Lenzken, S. C. RNA-binding proteins in the regulation of miRNA activity: a focus on neuronal functions. Biomolecules 5, 2363–2387 (2015).
Meunier, J. et al. Birth and expression evolution of mammalian microRNA genes. Genome Res. 23, 34–45 (2013).
Chiang, H. R. et al. Mammalian microRNAs: experimental evaluation of novel and previously annotated genes. Genes Dev. 24, 992–1009 (2010).
Baskerville, S. & Bartel, D. P. Microarray profiling of microRNAs reveals frequent coexpression with neighboring miRNAs and host genes. RNA 11, 241–247 (2005).
Mathelier, A. & Carbone, A. Large scale chromosomal mapping of human microRNA structural clusters. Nucleic Acids Res. 41, 4392–4408 (2013).
Wheeler, B. M. et al. The deep evolution of metazoan microRNAs. Evol. Dev. 11, 50–68 (2009).
Lewis, M. A. et al. An ENU-induced mutation of miR-96 associated with progressive hearing loss in mice. Nat. Genet. 41, 614–618 (2009).
Wang, H. et al. miR-219 cooperates with miR-338 in myelination and promotes myelin repair in the CNS. Dev. Cell 40, 566–582 e5 (2017).
Bao, J. et al. MicroRNA-449 and microRNA-34b/c function redundantly in murine testes by targeting E2F transcription factor-retinoblastoma protein (E2F-pRb) pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 21686–21698 (2012).
Concepcion, C. P. et al. Intact p53-dependent responses in miR-34-deficient mice. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002797 (2012).
Wu, J. et al. Two miRNA clusters, miR-34b/c and miR-449, are essential for normal brain development, motile ciliogenesis, and spermatogenesis. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, E2851–E2857 (2014).
Pinto, D. et al. Convergence of genes and cellular pathways dysregulated in autism spectrum disorders. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 94, 677–694 (2014).
Willemsen, M. H. et al. Chromosome 1p21.3 microdeletions comprising DPYD and MIR137 are associated with intellectual disability. J. Med. Genet. 48, 810–818 (2011).
Crowley, J. J. et al. Disruption of the microRNA 137 primary transcript results in early embryonic lethality in mice. Biol. Psychiatry 77, e5–e7 (2015).
Cheng, Y. et al. Partial loss of psychiatric risk gene Mir137 in mice causes repetitive behavior and impairs sociability and learning via increased Pde10a. Nat. Neurosci. 21, 1689–1703 (2018).
Duan, J. et al. A rare functional noncoding variant at the GWAS-implicated MIR137/MIR2682 locus might confer risk to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 95, 744–753 (2014).
Siegert, S. et al. The schizophrenia risk gene product miR-137 alters presynaptic plasticity. Nat. Neurosci. 18, 1008–1016 (2015).
Yue, M. et al. MSDD: a manually curated database of experimentally supported associations among miRNAs, SNPs and human diseases. Nucleic Acids Res. 46, D181–D185 (2018).
Denzler, R., Agarwal, V., Stefano, J., Bartel, D. P. & Stoffel, M. Assessing the ceRNA hypothesis with quantitative measurements of miRNA and target abundance. Mol. Cell 54, 766–776 (2014).
Valdmanis, P. N. et al. miR-122 removal in the liver activates imprinted microRNAs and enables more effective microRNA-mediated gene repression. Nat. Commun. 9, 5321 (2018).
Rissland, O. S., Hong, S. J. & Bartel, D. P. MicroRNA destabilization enables dynamic regulation of the miR-16 family in response to cell-cycle changes. Mol. Cell 43, 993–1004 (2011).
Krol, J. et al. Characterizing light-regulated retinal microRNAs reveals rapid turnover as a common property of neuronal microRNAs. Cell 141, 618–631 (2010).
De, N. et al. Highly complementary target RNAs promote release of guide RNAs from human Argonaute2. Mol. Cell 50, 344–355 (2013).
Park, J. H., Shin, S. Y. & Shin, C. Non-canonical targets destabilize microRNAs in human Argonautes. Nucleic Acids Res. 45, 1569–1583 (2017).
de la Mata, M. et al. Potent degradation of neuronal miRNAs induced by highly complementary targets. EMBO Rep. 16, 500–511 (2015).
Sheu-Gruttadauria, J. et al. Structural basis for target-directed microRNA degradation. Mol. Cell 75, 1243–1255.e7 (2019).
Piwecka, M. et al. Loss of a mammalian circular RNA locus causes miRNA deregulation and affects brain function. Science 357, eaam8526 (2017).
Kleaveland, B., Shi, C. Y., Stefano, J. & Bartel, D. P. A network of noncoding regulatory RNAs acts in the mammalian brain. Cell 174, 350–362 e17 (2018).
Hansen, T. B. et al. Natural RNA circles function as efficient microRNA sponges. Nature 495, 384–388 (2013).
Sambandan, S. et al. Activity-dependent spatially localized miRNA maturation in neuronal dendrites. Science 355, 634–637 (2017). This study reveals subcellularly localized maturation and activity of mir-181a in neuronal dendrites and spines following local stimulation.
Park, I. et al. Nanoscale imaging reveals miRNA-mediated control of functional states of dendritic spines. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 116, 9616–9621 (2019).
Bartel, D. P. MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function. Cell 116, 281–297 (2004).
Grimson, A. et al. MicroRNA targeting specificity in mammals: determinants beyond seed pairing. Mol. Cell 27, 91–105 (2007).
Sekita, Y. et al. Role of retrotransposon-derived imprinted gene, Rtl1, in the feto-maternal interface of mouse placenta. Nat. Genet. 40, 243–248 (2008).
Ito, M. et al. A trans-homologue interaction between reciprocally imprinted miR-127 and Rtl1 regulates placenta development. Development 142, 2425–2430 (2015).
Wystub, K., Besser, J., Bachmann, A., Boettger, T. & Braun, T. miR-1/133a clusters cooperatively specify the cardiomyogenic lineage by adjustment of myocardin levels during embryonic heart development. PLoS Genet. 9, e1003793 (2013).
Wei, Y. et al. Multifaceted roles of miR-1s in repressing the fetal gene program in the heart. Cell Res. 24, 278–292 (2014).
Liu, N. et al. microRNA-133a regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and suppresses smooth muscle gene expression in the heart. Genes Dev. 22, 3242–3254 (2008).
Han, Y. C. et al. An allelic series of miR-17 approximately 92-mutant mice uncovers functional specialization and cooperation among members of a microRNA polycistron. Nat. Genet. 47, 766–775 (2015). Genetic dissection using an allelic series of the mir-17~92 cluster reveals co-operative targeting by these distinct polycistronic miRNAs.
Wang, Y., Luo, J., Zhang, H. & Lu, J. microRNAs in the same clusters evolve to coordinately regulate functionally related genes. Mol. Biol. Evol. 33, 2232–2247 (2016).
Marco, A. Comment on “microRNAs in the same clusters evolve to coordinately regulate functionally related genes”. Mol. Biol. Evol. 36, 1843 (2019).
Olive, V., Minella, A. C. & He, L. Outside the coding genome, mammalian microRNAs confer structural and functional complexity. Sci. Signal. 8, re2 (2015).
Wang, Y. et al. Embryonic stem cell-specific microRNAs regulate the G1-S transition and promote rapid proliferation. Nat. Genet. 40, 1478–1483 (2008).
Warth, S. C. et al. Induced miR-99a expression represses Mtor cooperatively with miR-150 to promote regulatory T-cell differentiation. EMBO J. 34, 1195–1213 (2015).
Kurata, J. S. & Lin, R. J. MicroRNA-focused CRISPR-Cas9 library screen reveals fitness-associated miRNAs. RNA 24, 966–981 (2018).
Chang, H. et al. CRISPR/cas9, a novel genomic tool to knock down microRNA in vitro and in vivo. Sci. Rep. 6, 22312 (2016).
Narayanan, A. et al. In vivo mutagenesis of miRNA gene families using a scalable multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system. Sci. Rep. 6, 32386 (2016).
Ebert, M. S. & Sharp, P. A. MicroRNA sponges: progress and possibilities. RNA 16, 2043–2050 (2010).
Bonci, D. et al. The miR-15a-miR-16-1 cluster controls prostate cancer by targeting multiple oncogenic activities. Nat. Med. 14, 1271–1277 (2008).
Gaidatzis, D., Burger, L., Florescu, M. & Stadler, M. B. Analysis of intronic and exonic reads in RNA-seq data characterizes transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Nat. Biotechnol. 33, 722–729 (2015).
McGeary, S. E. et al. The biochemical basis of microRNA targeting efficacy. Science 366, eaav1741 (2019).
Yang, A. et al. 3’ uridylation confers miRNAs with non-canonical target repertoires. Mol. Cell 75, 511–522.e4 (2019).
Li, L. et al. The landscape of miRNA editing in animals and its impact on miRNA biogenesis and targeting. Genome Res. 28, 132–143 (2018).
Ke, S. et al. A majority of m6A residues are in the last exons, allowing the potential for 3’ UTR regulation. Genes Dev. 29, 2037–2053 (2015).
Bluhm, B. et al. miR-322 stabilizes MEK1 expression to inhibit RAF/MEK/ERK pathway activation in cartilage. Development 144, 3562–3577 (2017).
Faridani, O. R. et al. Single-cell sequencing of the small-RNA transcriptome. Nat. Biotechnol. 34, 1264–1266 (2016).
Nowakowski, T. J. et al. Regulation of cell-type-specific transcriptomes by microRNA networks during human brain development. Nat. Neurosci. 21, 1784–1792 (2018).
Wang, N. et al. Single-cell microRNA-mRNA co-sequencing reveals non-genetic heterogeneity and mechanisms of microRNA regulation. Nat. Commun. 10, 95 (2019).
B.D. and R.B. were or are supported by a CIHR Fellowship, NICHD R21 (R21HD093084), NICHD P50 (P50HD055764) and NIGMS R01s (R01GM122439 and R01GM125089). The authors also thank F. Chanut for providing feedback on the manuscript.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information
Nature Reviews Genetics thanks the anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
- Seed sequence
Nucleotides 2–7 of microRNAs, which largely determine the target binding repertoire of microRNAs.
- Purifying selection
The selective removal of deleterious alleles by natural selection.
- Developmental timing
The schedule of events during development of unperturbed organisms.
Unsynchronized events relative to the expected schedule.
- miRNA cluster
Multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) that are physically adjacent in the genome.
- miRNA family
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) encoded by distinct genomic loci with common seed sequences.
- Target suppression
Destabilization, translational inhibition or cleavage of RNAs bound by microRNAs.
- Synergistic targeting
Target suppression that exceeds the additive suppression of multiple microRNAs.
- Heterotypic cluster
A microRNA cluster that encodes microRNAs from more than one seed family.
- Cooperative targeting
Distinct microRNAs additively suppressing a common target.
About this article
Cite this article
DeVeale, B., Swindlehurst-Chan, J. & Blelloch, R. The roles of microRNAs in mouse development. Nat Rev Genet 22, 307–323 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41576-020-00309-5
Overexpression of miR-1306-5p, miR-3195, and miR-3914 Inhibits Ameloblast Differentiation through Suppression of Genes Associated with Human Amelogenesis Imperfecta
International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2021)