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Intestinal gases: influence on gut disorders and the role of dietary manipulations


The inner workings of the intestines, in which the body and microbiome intersect to influence gut function and systemic health, remain elusive. Carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane and hydrogen sulfide, as well as a variety of trace gases, are generated by the chemical interactions and microbiota within the gut. Profiling of these intestinal gases and their responses to dietary changes can reveal the products and functions of the gut microbiota and their influence on human health. Indeed, different tools for measuring these intestinal gases have been developed, including newly developed gas-sensing capsule technology. Gases can, according to their type, concentration and volume, induce or relieve abdominal symptoms, and might also have physiological, pathogenic and therapeutic effects. Thus, profiling and modulating intestinal gases could be powerful tools for disease prevention and/or therapy. As the interactions between the microbiota, chemical constituents and fermentative substrates of the gut are principally influenced by dietary intake, altering the diet, which, in turn, changes gas profiles, is the main therapeutic approach for gastrointestinal disorders. An improved understanding of the complex interactions within the intestines that generate gases will enhance our ability to prevent, diagnose, treat and monitor many gastrointestinal disorders.

Key points

  • Profiling intestinal gases enables assessment of the functions of the gut microbiome.

  • Intestinal gas composition can influence gut physiology and generate abdominal symptoms in patients with gastrointestinal disorders such as IBS and IBD.

  • Multiple different techniques have been developed for assessing intestinal gases, all of which are limited by the fact that they either measure intestinal gases indirectly or are highly invasive.

  • Ingestible gas-sensing capsules seem to be a very promising alternative to indirect or invasive techniques as they provide direct gas concentration measurements and are minimally invasive.

  • Intestinal gas profiles are predominantly influenced by the composition of the luminal microbiota and by consumed dietary substrates.

  • Dietary manipulations readily alter intestinal gas production and composition and are, therefore, attractive tools in the management of patients with gas-associated gastrointestinal disorders.

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Fig. 1: Transit of gases and food along the gut.
Fig. 2: Physiology of intestinal gases.
Fig. 3: Microbial pathways of gas and SCFA production for polysaccharides as the substrate intake.
Fig. 4: Indirect techniques for the measurement of gut gases.
Fig. 5: Breath testing for gut gases.
Fig. 6: Intestinal gas measurement using ingestible capsules.


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The authors acknowledge financial support from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia (Development Grant, APP1154969).

Author information




K.K.-Z., K.J.B., R.E.B. and P.R.G. researched data for the article. K.K.-Z. and P.R.G. made substantial contributions to discussion of the article contents. K.K.-Z., R.E.B. and P.R.G. wrote the manuscript. All authors reviewed and/or edited the manuscript before submission.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh or Peter R. Gibson.

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Competing interests

K.K.-Z, P.R.G. and K.J.B. are the lead scientific advisor, lead medical advisor and chief technical officer for Atmo Biosciences, respectively, a company that owns the patents related to swallowable capsules for profiling gases along the gut. R.E.B., J.G.M. and P.R.G. declare that their affiliation, Monash University, financially gains from the sales of digital applications, booklets and education tools associated with the low FODMAP diet.

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The chemical breakdown of a substance by microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the production of heat.

Volatile organic compounds

(VOCs). Organic chemicals that have a high vapour pressure at near room temperature.


Gas that is expelled from the colon via the anus.

Headspace gas

The gas that occupies the volume of the gut that is not filled with the gut liquid.

Short-chain fatty acids

(SCFAs). Fatty acids with fewer than six carbon atoms.

Visceral sensitivity

A response to stretching of the intestinal wall by distension.


A substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit.

Gasotransmitter effect

Whereby certain gases, termed gasotransmitters, exert specific physiological functions through interaction with cells expressing specific target chemical components.


Live microorganisms intended to provide health benefits when consumed, generally by improving gut microbiota composition.

Heat stress

A situation in which too much heat is absorbed by the organ or tissue, causing stress, pathological processes and/or illness to occur.

Colonic compliance

The ability of the colon to yield elastically when a force is applied.

Carbohydrate malabsorption

The passage of dietary carbohydrates to the colon, as the result of a failure to completely absorb monosaccharides during passage through the small intestine, or of a lack of hydrolases in the small intestine to digest the carbohydrates into absorbable monosaccharides.

Small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth

(SIBO). Excessive bacterial growth in the small intestine (greater than considered normal).

Nonadrenergic noncholinergic inhibition

The inhibition of nerve cells in which epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), a similar adrenergic substance or acetylcholine (a ‘cholinergic’) functions as a neurotransmitter.

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Kalantar-Zadeh, K., Berean, K.J., Burgell, R.E. et al. Intestinal gases: influence on gut disorders and the role of dietary manipulations. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 16, 733–747 (2019).

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