Probiotics and prebiotics are microbiota-management tools for improving host health. They target gastrointestinal effects via the gut, although direct application to other sites such as the oral cavity, vaginal tract and skin is being explored. Here, we describe gut-derived effects in humans. In the past decade, research on the gut microbiome has rapidly accumulated and has been accompanied by increased interest in probiotics and prebiotics as a means to modulate the gut microbiota. Given the importance of these approaches for public health, it is timely to reiterate factual and supporting information on their clinical application and use. In this Review, we discuss scientific evidence on probiotics and prebiotics, including mechanistic insights into health effects. Strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces have a long history of safe and effective use as probiotics, but Roseburia spp., Akkermansia spp., Propionibacterium spp. and Faecalibacterium spp. show promise for the future. For prebiotics, glucans and fructans are well proven, and evidence is building on the prebiotic effects of other substances (for example, oligomers of mannose, glucose, xylose, pectin, starches, human milk and polyphenols).
The human gut microbiota is integral to health and is associated with a variety of diseases.
Therapeutic and prophylactic effects of some probiotics and prebiotics for a variety of gut-related disorders might be, at least in part, mediated through modification of the microbiota and/or its function.
Probiotic microorganisms act via a variety of means, including modulation of immune function, production of organic acids and antimicrobial compounds, interaction with resident microbiota, interfacing with the host, improving gut barrier integrity and enzyme formation.
Prebiotics are substrates that are selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit; prebiotic effects include defence against pathogens, immune modulation, mineral absorption, bowel function, metabolic effects and satiety.
Use of some probiotics and prebiotics is justified by robust assessments of efficacy, but not all products have been validated; the goal is evidence-based use by healthcare professionals.
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Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology thanks H. Szajewska, and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s), for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
M.E.S. declares personal fees related to probiotics from the following entities: California Dairy Research Foundation, Clorox, Danone, Danone USA, Dutch Mill, General Mills, JHeimbach, Kelley Drye & Warren, Kellogg, Kerry, Medscape, Nestle, New Chapter, Pepsico, Pfizer, Pharmavite, Probi, Procter & Gamble, Trouw Nutrition, Visalia Dairy Company, Williams Mullen, Winclove Probiotics and Yakult. D.J.M. declares personal fees for consulting for Bayer and Pharmavite. G.R. declares that he helped develop and commercialize probiotic strains GR-1 and RC-14, but has had no financial interest in them for over 10 years. He is Chief Scientific Officer for Seed, a company producing probiotic products. Over the past 3 years, he has consulted on probiotics with Acerus Pharmaceuticals, Altmann, Chr. Hansen, Danone, KGK Science, Kimberly-Clark, Metagenics and Seed. G.R.G. and R.A.R. declare no competing interests.
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Sanders, M.E., Merenstein, D.J., Reid, G. et al. Probiotics and prebiotics in intestinal health and disease: from biology to the clinic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 16, 605–616 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41575-019-0173-3
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