A recent publication in Cell Reports adds to the emerging consensus that metformin acts on the gut and kidneys to increase circulating levels of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15). However, the report also highlights circumstances in which the effects of metformin on body weight and energy balance seem to be independent of GDF15–GFRAL signalling.
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The authors gratefully acknowledge Professor Sir Stephen O’Rahilly (University of Cambridge) for helpful discussions in the preparation of this manuscript. A.P.C. acknowledges the support of the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Metabolic Diseases Unit (MC_UU_00014/1).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Kincaid, J.W.R., Coll, A.P. Metformin and GDF15: where are we now?. Nat Rev Endocrinol 19, 6–7 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41574-022-00764-6