Imaging is an essential tool in research, diagnostics and the management of endocrine disorders. Ultrasonography, nuclear medicine techniques, MRI, CT and optical methods are already used for applications in endocrinology. Optoacoustic imaging, also termed photoacoustic imaging, is emerging as a method for visualizing endocrine physiology and disease at different scales of detail: microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic. Optoacoustic contrast arises from endogenous light absorbers, such as oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin, lipids and water, or exogenous contrast agents, and reveals tissue vasculature, perfusion, oxygenation, metabolic activity and inflammation. The development of high-performance optoacoustic scanners for use in humans has given rise to a variety of clinical investigations, which complement the use of the technology in preclinical research. Here, we review key progress with optoacoustic imaging technology as it relates to applications in endocrinology; for example, to visualize thyroid morphology and function, and the microvasculature in diabetes mellitus or adipose tissue metabolism, with particular focus on multispectral optoacoustic tomography and raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy. We explain the merits of optoacoustic microscopy and focus on mid-infrared optoacoustic microscopy, which enables label-free imaging of metabolites in cells and tissues. We showcase current optoacoustic applications within endocrinology and discuss the potential of these technologies to advance research and clinical practice.
Optoacoustic technology includes a range of non-invasive, label-free and portable imaging modalities, which provide molecular visualizations at the macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic scale.
Multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography produces real-time tomographic views of tissue with a resolution of 200–300 μm (macroscopy) at depths of 2–4 cm.
Raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy provides volumetric images of tissue microvasculature and perfusion with a resolution of <10 μm (mesoscopy) at depths of 1–2 mm.
Mid-infrared optoacoustic microscopy provides label-free visualizations of the spatiotemporal dynamics of biomolecules in cellular metabolism.
Optoacoustic imaging offers a complete framework for investigating anatomic, functional and molecular aspects of common endocrine disorders.
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The authors acknowledge the support of funding from European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 871763 (WINTHER) and from the European Research Council (ERC) under grant agreement no. 694968 (PREMSOT) and from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Germany (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize 2013; NT 3/10-1).
V.N. has stock and stock options in iThera Medical. All other authors declare no competing interests.
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- Multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography
(MSOT). Macroscopic imaging technology that generates real-time images of tissues in clinical and preclinical applications.
- Raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy
(RSOM). Mesoscopic imaging technology that produces volumetric images of tissues and is mainly used for skin and microvascular applications.
The parts of a molecule that absorb light at a particular frequency to give a molecule a specific colour.
An enzyme that facilitates the production of the pigment eumelanin and can be permanently expressed in engineered cells to provide strong optoacoustic contrast.
- Mid-infrared optoacoustic microscopy
(MiROM). Label-free microscopic technology that provides endogenous biomolecular contrast images of cellular metabolites and their dynamics.
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Karlas, A., Pleitez, M.A., Aguirre, J. et al. Optoacoustic imaging in endocrinology and metabolism. Nat Rev Endocrinol 17, 323–335 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41574-021-00482-5
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