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Food as a circadian time cue — evidence from human studies


Meal timing and composition are frequently reported in the literature as zeitgebers (that is, time cues) for the circadian system of humans and animal models, albeit secondary to light. Although widely assumed to be true, evidence for food zeitgeber effects specific to humans is notably scarce. Fostering zeitgeber hygiene in the general population as the development and practice of healthy use of zeitgebers could potentially reduce chronobiological strain, which is defined as disruption or misalignment within the circadian system. Such chronobiological strain is associated with modern 24/7 lifestyles (for example, shift work) and several negative health outcomes. Adjustments to meal timing and composition are an attractive strategy to synchronize circadian rhythms and develop zeitgeber hygiene. Thus, clarifying the actual effect of meal timing and composition on the human circadian system is a crucial piece of the human chronobiology puzzle. This Review weighs the evidence from human studies pertaining to the hypothesis that food is a circadian zeitgeber by comparing findings against formal zeitgeber criteria put forward by Jürgen Aschoff in the 1950s.

Key points

  • Fostering zeitgeber hygiene as the practice of healthy use of ‘zeitgebers’ (circadian time cues) could reduce the chronobiological strain (disruption or misalignment within the circadian system) that is associated with modern 24/7 lifestyles and several negative health outcomes.

  • Meal timing and composition are described as ‘zeitgebers’ for humans in the literature, despite a notably paucity of clear, direct evidence from human studies.

  • Only one study has demonstrated that meal timing sufficiently fulfils at least one of the zeitgeber criteria put forward by Jürgen Aschoff in the 1950s.

  • Targeted human research should be prioritized to properly ascertain multifaceted relationships between food intake and human chronobiology.

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Fig. 1: Example illustration of Aschoff criteria.


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The authors contributed equally to all aspects of the article.

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Correspondence to Philip Lewis.

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Circadian rhythms are out of sync either with each other or with the external environment; for example, Aschoff criterion 2: upon Zeitgeber reversal, the circadian rhythm is in a transient period of misalignment with regard to the Zeitgeber.

Internal time

The phase of entrained circadian rhythm (for example, dim-light melatonin onset).

External time

Phase of the Zeitgeber rhythm (for example, dawn or dusk).

Zeitgeber hygiene

The practice of synergistic use of Zeitgebers to potentially reduce the chronobiological strain (disruption or misalignment within the circadian system) that is associated with modern 24/7 lifestyles, conflicting Zeitgeber information and several negative health outcomes.


A direct change in a circadian rhythm caused by another factor, such that it hides the true responsible endogenous component; for example, in humans, pulses of light can inhibit melatonin secretion even if the circadian component is in the acrophase.


The time period during which a rhythm peaks (for example, the crest of a sine wave).


The mean of circadian rhythm measurements computed using a cosine function and based on distribution of measurements across cycles.

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Lewis, P., Oster, H., Korf, H.W. et al. Food as a circadian time cue — evidence from human studies. Nat Rev Endocrinol 16, 213–223 (2020).

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