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Advances in the chemistry and applications of alkali-metal–gas batteries



Rechargeable metal–gas batteries have the promise of exceeding the energy densities of Li-ion batteries. An archetypal metal–gas system is the nonaqueous lithium–oxygen (Li–O2) battery, which was developed with a view to deploying it in electric vehicles. However, operating this battery comes with substantial challenges that include parasitic chemical reactivity and degrees of electrochemical irreversibility, which contribute to poor charging and cycling. To address these challenges, researchers began exploring new nonaqueous metal–gas battery paradigms by manipulating the underlying O2 redox behaviour through electrolyte and materials design, using non-Li-metal anodes to change the nature of the solid discharge phase and improve reversibility, and using other gaseous reactants as the cathode. This Review presents the new understanding of nonaqueous gas-to-solid electrochemistry that has emerged from these concerted efforts, along with new hurdles that have been revealed as cells have gradually been reformulated. The ultimate impact of new metal–gas batteries needs to be re-examined for applications beyond electric vehicles that are more amenable to the individual chemistries and performance characteristics.

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Fig. 1: Promise and performance of nonaqueous alkali-metal–gas batteries.
Fig. 2: Effect of electrolyte and oxygen source on nonaqueous Li–oxygen electrochemistry.
Fig. 3: The role of the alkali-metal anode in unlocking reversibility.
Fig. 4: Changing the gas cathode: effects on morphology and electrochemistry.
Fig. 5: Motifs underlying molecular and solid-state reversibility.


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The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory and from the Army Research Office under award number W911NF-19-1-0311.

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Gao, H., Gallant, B.M. Advances in the chemistry and applications of alkali-metal–gas batteries. Nat Rev Chem 4, 566–583 (2020).

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