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Precision synthesis versus bulk-scale fabrication of graphenes

Nature Reviews Chemistry volume 2, Article number: 0100 (2017) | Download Citation

Abstract

Graphene is a fascinating material with unique properties, such as extreme mechanical strength, ultrahigh electrical and thermal conductivities and remarkable transparency. Further reduction in the dimensionality of graphene in the form of graphene quantum dots and graphene nanoribbons has compensated for the lack of a bandgap in the extended 2D material. These nanoscale graphenes exhibit finite bandgaps because of quantum confinement, making them attractive as next-generation semiconductors. Numerous fabrication methods for various types of graphenes have been developed, which can generally be categorized into ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ procedures. These methods afford, on different production scales, a wide range of graphene structures of different sizes, shapes and quality (defect density, edge roughness and so on). Atomically precise syntheses are indispensable for fundamental research and future technological development, but the projection of the existing methods to cost-effective bulk-scale fabrication techniques is required for upcoming industrial applications of graphenes.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge all of their distinguished collaborators and dedicated research associates, who enabled their achievements partly described in this article. They thank EU Projects GENIUS (ITN-264694), UPGRADE and MoQuaS, Graphene Flagship (No. CNECT-ICT-604391), European Research Council (ERC)-Adv.-Grant 267160 (NANOGRAPH), the Max Planck Society, the Office of Naval Research Basic Research Challenge (BRC) Program (molecular synthesis and characterization), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Priority Programme SPP 1459 and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for financial support.

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  1. Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128, Mainz, Germany.

    • Xiao-Ye Wang
    • , Akimitsu Narita
    •  & Klaus Müllen

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Contributions

X.-Y.W. researched the literature and published data for the article and produced the first draft together with A.N. All authors discussed the content and contributed to the review and editing of the manuscript before submission.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Akimitsu Narita or Klaus Müllen.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41570-017-0100