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Dynamic control of function by light-driven molecular motors

Abstract

The field of dynamic functional molecular systems has progressed enormously over the past few decades. By coupling the mechanical properties of molecular switches and motors to chemical and biological processes, exceptional control of function has been attained. Overcrowded alkene-based light-driven molecular motors are very attractive in this respect owing to their unique multistate photochemically and thermally induced switching processes and their helical chirality inversion in each switching step. However, extending our control over properties from the molecular scale to larger length scales is still a fundamental challenge. In this Perspective, we discuss recent developments that address this challenge, ranging from the application of these motors in catalysis and synthetic materials to the control of biological properties. We may now be positioned at the dawn of a new era in which artificial molecular motors are able to perform programmed tasks and dynamic functions akin to the biological machines that are found in daily life.

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Figure 1: Light-driven molecular motors based on overcrowded alkenes.
Figure 2: Photocontrol of enantioselectivity in asymmetric catalysis using catalysts built around a first-generation molecular motor scaffold.
Figure 3: Dynamic control of the helicity of polyisocyanate using a second-generation molecular motor.
Figure 4: Dynamic self-assembly.
Figure 5: Control of surface wettability by molecular motors anchored to a gold surface.
Figure 6: Dynamic control of anion binding affinity and enantioselectivity.

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Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge generous support from NanoNed, The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO-CW Top grant to B.L.F. and NWO-CW Veni grant No. 722.014.006 to S.J.W.), the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Gravitation programme 024.001.035) and the European Research Council (Advanced Investigator Grant No. 694345 to B.L.F.).

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Correspondence to Sander J. Wezenberg or Ben L. Feringa.

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van Leeuwen, T., Lubbe, A., Štacko, P. et al. Dynamic control of function by light-driven molecular motors. Nat Rev Chem 1, 0096 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41570-017-0096

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