Challenges and opportunities for women in science

Although there is a keen awareness of the gender gap in the physical sciences, a healthy female representation has yet to be achieved. This article offers some possible explanations, in addition to strategies to more rapidly achieve gender balance in the physical sciences.

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The author thanks B. Cave and D. McDowell for useful comments, edits and discussions. This material was developed while serving at the US National Science Foundation.

Author information


  1. Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

    • Angela K. Wilson


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Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Angela K. Wilson.