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Immune checkpoint inhibitors: acute and chronic cardiovascular complications

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become a pillar of cancer therapy. The cardiovascular complications of ICIs extend beyond myocarditis and can involve any component of the cardiovascular system, including the pericardium, coronary arteries and conduction system. Clinicians caring for patients treated with ICIs must be vigilant for the cardiovascular complications of these therapies, which might portend a poor prognosis.

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Fig. 1: Pathophysiology of ICI-mediated atherosclerosis.


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Correspondence to Kiranbir Josan.

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Competing interests

T.G.N. has received consulting fees from AbbVie, Amgen, Bristol Myers Squibb, CRO Oncology, Genentech, H3 Biomedicine, Roche and Sanofi, and has received grant funding from AstraZeneca and Bristol Myers Squibb for work related to the cardiovascular complications of immune checkpoint inhibitors. K.J. declares no competing interests.

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Josan, K., Neilan, T.G. Immune checkpoint inhibitors: acute and chronic cardiovascular complications. Nat Rev Cardiol 20, 73–74 (2023).

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