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The future of cardiac xenotransplantation

Reflecting on the first genetically engineered pig-to-human heart transplantation in this Clinical Outlook article, we discuss the likely future of cardiac xenotransplantation. Initial clinical trials are expected to explore compassionate use as destination therapy in carefully selected adult patients and as a bridge to heart allotransplantation in infant patients with complex congenital heart disease.

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Fig. 1: Major milestones in cardiac xenotransplantation research in the past 4 decades.


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Work on xenotransplantation in the authors’ laboratories is supported in part by NIH grants (AI090959 and AI153612) and a Department of Defense grant (W81XWH2010559).

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Correspondence to David K. C. Cooper.

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D.K.C.C. is a consultant for eGenesis, but the opinions expressed in this article are his own and do not necessarily reflect those of the company. D.K.C.C. and R.N.P.III have received research materials and/or funding from eGenesis and Revivicor.

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Cooper, D.K.C., Pierson, R.N. The future of cardiac xenotransplantation. Nat Rev Cardiol 19, 281–282 (2022).

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