Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • News & Views
  • Published:

Quantum optics

Electrons bunch up in quantum light

When photons impinge on a material, free electrons can be created by the photoelectric effect. The emitted electron current usually fluctuates with Poisson statistics, but if squeezed quantum light is applied, the electrons bunch up.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: Electron emission with classical and quantum light.


  1. Heimerl, J. et al. Nat. Phys. (2024).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bohr, N. & Rosenfeld, L. Kgl. Danske Vid. Sels., Math.-fys. Medd. 12, 1–65 (1933).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Riek, C. et al. Science 350, 420–423 (2015).

    Article  ADS  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  4. Schnabel, R. Phys. Rep. 684, 1–51 (2017).

    Article  ADS  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  5. Reinhardt, O., Mechel, C., Lynch, M. & Kaminer, I. Ann. Phys. (Berlin) 533, 2000254 (2021).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  6. Tsarev, M., Ryabov, A. & Baum, P. Phys. Rev. Res. 3, 043033 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Alfred Leitenstorfer or Peter Baum.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Leitenstorfer, A., Baum, P. Electrons bunch up in quantum light. Nat. Phys. 20, 890–891 (2024).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing