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  • Review Article
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Quantum computation and quantum simulation with ultracold molecules

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Abstract

Ultracold molecules confined in optical lattices or tweezer traps can be used to process quantum information and simulate the behaviour of many-body quantum systems. Molecules offer several advantages for these applications. They have a large set of stable states with strong transitions between them and long coherence times. Molecules can be prepared in a chosen state with high fidelity, and the state populations can be measured efficiently. Control over their long-range dipole–dipole interactions can enable the entanglement of pairs of molecules, generating interesting and technologically useful many-body states. This Review covers the advances made so far in the field of quantum simulation and computation with ultracold molecules and the challenges still to overcome.

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Fig. 1: Rotational energies and dipole moments of a simple diatomic molecule in an electric field.
Fig. 2: Quantum simulation with ultracold polar molecules.
Fig. 3: Entangling gate between CaF molecules using dipolar spin-exchange interactions.
Fig. 4: Future research directions.

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  • 13 June 2024

    In the version of the article initially published, refs. 34–37 were missing DOIs which have now been added to the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the support of the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (grant nos. EP/P01058X/1, EP/P008275/1, EP/V011499/1 and EP/W00299X/1), a Frontier Research Grant from UK Research and Innovation (grant no. EP/X023354/1), the Robert A. Welch Foundation (grant no. C-1872), the National Science Foundation (grant nos. PHY1848304 and CMMI-2037545), the Office of Naval Research (grant nos. N00014-20-1-2695 and N00014-12-1-2665), the W.M. Keck Foundation (grant no. 995764), the Department of Energy (grant no. DE-SC0024301), the Royal Society and Durham University.

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Cornish, S.L., Tarbutt, M.R. & Hazzard, K.R.A. Quantum computation and quantum simulation with ultracold molecules. Nat. Phys. 20, 730–740 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-024-02453-9

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