Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Topological control of synthetic morphogenesis

Organs in the human body have complex networks of fluid-filled tubes and loops with different geometries and topologies. By studying self-organized, synthetic tissues, the link between topological transitions and the emergence of tissue architecture was revealed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Pharmacological control of organoid topology and shape.


  1. Karzburn, E. et al. Human brain organoids on a chip reveal the physics of folding. Nat. Phys. 14, 515–522 (2018). This paper reports how folds can self-organize in human brain organoids.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Palmer, M. A. et al. Stress ball morphogenesis: How the lizard builds its lung. Sci. Adv. 7, eabk0161 (2021). This paper reports how fluid pressure deforms an epithelial sheet into the complex architecture of lizard lungs.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Collinet, C. & Lecuit, T. Programmed and self-organized flow of information in morphogenesis. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Bio. 22, 245–265 (2021). A review article that presents the current view of biophysical and biochemical mechanisms in morphogenesis.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Chartier, N. T. et al. A hydraulic instability drives the cell death decision in the nematode germline. Nat. Phys. 17, 920–925 (2021). This paper reports how hydraulic exchanges between germ cells determine which cells develop into oocytes.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Campàs, O. A toolbox to explore the mechanics of living embryonic tissues. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 55, 119–130 (2016). A review article that presents techniques for studying the role of mechanics in living tissues.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This is a summary of: Ishihara, K. et al. Topological morphogenesis of neuroepithelial organoids. Nat. Phys. (2022).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Topological control of synthetic morphogenesis. Nat. Phys. (2022).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing