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Cyclotron resonance overtones and near-field magnetoabsorption via terahertz Bernstein modes in graphene

Abstract

Two-dimensional electron systems subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field absorb electromagnetic radiation via cyclotron resonance (CR). Here we report a qualitative deviation from this well-known behaviour in graphene. Our measurements of the terahertz photoresponse reveal a resonant burst at the main overtone of the CR that exceeds the signal detected at the position of the ordinary CR. The dependencies of photoresponse on the magnetic field, doping level and sample geometry suggest that the origin of this anomaly lies in the near-field magnetoabsorption facilitated by the Bernstein modes—ultraslow magnetoplasmonic excitations reshaped by non-local electron dynamics. Close to CR harmonics, these modes are characterized by a flat dispersion and diverging plasmonic density of states that amplify radiation absorption. Besides carrying fundamental interest, our results show that radiation absorption via non-local collective modes can facilitate a strong photoresponse—a behaviour potentially useful for infrared and terahertz technology.

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Fig. 1: Anomalous THz photoresponse of doped graphene.
Fig. 2: CR overtones in photovoltage and photoresistance.
Fig. 3: Non-local THz magnetoabsorption in graphene.

Data availability

The data reported in Figs. 13 can be found on Zenodo (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5758483). The other data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

E.M., K.L., I.A.D. and S.D.G. acknowledge the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Project ID 314695032 and SFB 1277 (Subproject A04). I.A.D. acknowledges DFG support via grant DM 1/5-1. Work at MIT was partly supported through AFOSR grant FA9550-21-1-0319, NSF QII-TAQS program (grant 1936263) and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation EPiQS Initiative through grant GBMF9643 to P.J.-H. D.A.B. acknowledges support from the MIT Pappalardo Fellowship. I.Y.P. acknowledges support from the MIT undergraduate research opportunities program and the Johnson & Johnson research scholars program. Support from the Materials Engineering and Processing program of the National Science Foundation under award no. CMMI 1538127 for hBN crystal growth is also greatly appreciated. The work of D.S. was supported by the Foundation for Advancement of Theoretical Physics ‘Basis’ under grant no. 20-1-3-43-1. K.K. and D.S. acknowledge financial support from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (agreement no. 075-15-2021-606). We thank L. Levitov, C. Collignon, A. Berdyugin, A. Principi, A. Bogdanov and A. A. Zibrov for valuable discussions.

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D.A.B., D.S. and S.D.G conceived and designed the project. E.M., D.A.B. and K.L. performed the transport and photoresponse measurements at the University of Regensburg. D.A.B. and I.Y.P. fabricated the devices. D.A.B., E.M., I.A.D. and D.S. analysed the experimental data with help from P.J.-H. and S.D.G. K.K. and D.S. developed the theoretical model and performed the magnetoabsorption calculations. S.L. and J.H.E. provided the high-quality hBN crystals. D.A.B., I.A.D., E.M. and D.S. wrote the manuscript, with input from all the co-authors. P.J.-H. and S.D.G. supervised the project. All the authors contributed to discussions.

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Correspondence to D. A. Bandurin, D. Svintsov or S. D. Ganichev.

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Supplementary Figs. 1–19, Sections 1–10 and refs. 1–23.

Supplementary Video 1

Emergence of BMs from magnetoplasmons and calculated magnetoabsorption.

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Bandurin, D.A., Mönch, E., Kapralov, K. et al. Cyclotron resonance overtones and near-field magnetoabsorption via terahertz Bernstein modes in graphene. Nat. Phys. 18, 462–467 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-021-01494-8

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