Dirac fermions with highly dispersive linear bands1,2,3 are usually considered weakly correlated due to the relatively large bandwidths (W) compared to Coulomb interactions (U). With the discovery of nodal-line semimetals, the notion of the Dirac point has been extended to lines and loops in momentum space. The anisotropy associated with nodal-line structure gives rise to greatly reduced kinetic energy along the line. However, experimental evidence for the anticipated enhanced correlations in nodal-line semimetals is sparse. Here, we report on prominent correlation effects in a nodal-line semimetal compound, ZrSiSe, through a combination of optical spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We observed two fundamental spectroscopic hallmarks of electronic correlations: strong reduction (1/3) of the free-carrier Drude weight and also the Fermi velocity compared to predictions of density functional band theory. The renormalization of Fermi velocity can be further controlled with an external magnetic field. ZrSiSe therefore offers the rare opportunity to investigate correlation-driven physics in a Dirac system.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Nature Communications Open Access 23 November 2022
npj Quantum Materials Open Access 05 October 2022
npj Quantum Materials Open Access 18 March 2022
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to Nature and 55 other Nature journal
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Vafek, O. & Vishwanath, A. Dirac fermions in solids: from high-T c cuprates and graphene to topological insulators and Weyl semimetals. Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 5, 83–112 (2014).
Armitage, N. P., Mele, E. J. & Vishwanath, A. Weyl and Dirac semimetals in three-dimensional solids. Rev. Mod. Phys. 90, 015001 (2018).
Wehling, T., Black-Schaffer, A. & Balatsky, A. Dirac materials. Adv. Phys. 63, 1–76 (2014).
Cao, Y. et al. Correlated insulator behaviour at half-filling in magic-angle graphene superlattices. Nature 556, 80–84 (2018).
Fang, C., Chen, Y., Kee, H.-Y. & Fu, L. Topological nodal line semimetals with and without spin–orbital coupling. Phys. Rev. B 92, 081201 (2015).
Schoop, L. M. et al. Dirac cone protected by non-symmorphic symmetry and three-dimensional Dirac line node in ZrSiS. Nat. Commun. 7, 11696 (2016).
Hosen, M. M. et al. Tunability of the topological nodal-line semimetal phase ZrSiX-type materials (X = S, Se, Te). Phys. Rev. B 95, 161101 (2017).
Rudenko, A. N., Stepanov, E. A., Lichtenstein, A. I. & Katsnelson, M. I. Excitonic instability and pseudogap formation in nodal line semimetal ZrSiS. Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 216401 (2018).
Mele, E. J. Dowsing for nodal lines in a topological semimetal. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 116, 1084–1086 (2019).
Scherer, M. M. et al. Excitonic instability and unconventional pairing in the nodal-line materials ZrSiS and ZrSiSe. Phys. Rev. B 98, 241112 (2018).
Pezzini, S. et al. Unconventional mass enhancement around the Dirac nodal loop in ZrSiS. Nat. Phys. 14, 178–183 (2018).
Ahn, S., Mele, E. J. & Min, H. Electrodynamics on Fermi cyclides in nodal line semimetals. Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 147402 (2017).
Basov, D. N., Averitt, R. D., van der Marel, D., Dressel, M. & Haule, K. Electrodynamics of correlated electron materials. Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 471–541 (2011).
Degiorgi, L. Electronic correlations in iron-pnictide superconductors and beyond: lessons learned from optics. New J. Phys. 13, 023011 (2011).
Qazilbash, M. M. et al. Electronic correlations in the iron pnictides. Nat. Phys. 5, 647–650 (2009).
Shao, Y. et al. Optical signatures of Dirac nodal lines in NbAs2. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 116, 1168–1173 (2019).
Schilling, M. B., Schoop, L. M., Lotsch, B. V., Dressel, M. & Pronin, A. V. Flat optical conductivity in ZrSiS due to two-dimensional Dirac bands. Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 187401 (2017).
Millis, A. J., Zimmers, A., Lobo, R. P. S. M., Bontemps, N. & Homes, C. C. Mott physics and the optical conductivity of electron-doped cuprates. Phys. Rev. B 72, 224517 (2005).
Schafgans, A. A. et al. Electronic correlations and unconventional spectral weight transfer in the high-temperature pnictide BaFe2 − xCoxAs2 superconductor using infrared spectroscopy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 147002 (2012).
Chen, R. Y. et al. Magnetoinfrared spectroscopy of Landau levels and Zeeman splitting of three-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in ZrTe5. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 176404 (2015).
Akrap, A. et al. Magneto-optical signature of massless Kane electrons in Cd3As2. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 136401 (2016).
Chen, Z.-G. et al. Two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in antiferromagnetic AFe2As2 (A = Ba,Sr). Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 096401 (2017).
Shao, Y. et al. Faraday rotation due to surface states in the topological insulator (Bi1 − xSbx)2Te3. Nano Lett. 17, 980–984 (2017).
Elias, D. C. et al. Dirac cones reshaped by interaction effects in suspended graphene. Nat. Phys. 7, 701–704 (2011).
Li, Z. Q. et al. Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy. Nat. Phys. 4, 532–535 (2008).
Yu, G. L. et al. Interaction phenomena in graphene seen through quantum capacitance. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 3282–3286 (2013).
Banerjee, S., Abergel, D. S. L., Ågren, H., Aeppli, G. & Balatsky, A. V. Universal trends in interacting two-dimensional Dirac materials Preprint at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.11480.pdf (2018).
Tang, H.-K. et al. The role of electron–electron interactions in two-dimensional Dirac fermions. Science 361, 570–574 (2018).
Orlita, M. et al. Observation of three-dimensional massless Kane fermions in a zinc-blende crystal. Nat. Phys. 10, 233–238 (2014).
Abergel, D. S. L., Apalkov, V., Berashevich, J., Ziegler, K. & Chakraborty, T. Properties of graphene: a theoretical perspective. Adv. Phys. 59, 261–482 (2010).
Orlita, M. et al. Magneto-optics of massive Dirac fermions in bulk Bi2Se3. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 186401 (2015).
Faugeras, C. et al. Landau level spectroscopy of electron–electron interactions in graphene. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 126804 (2015).
Syzranov, S. V. & Skinner, B. Electron transport in nodal-line semimetals. Phys. Rev. B 96, 161105 (2017).
Gatti, G. et al. Light-induced renormalization of the Dirac quasiparticles in the nodal-line semimetal ZrSiSe. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.09673.pdf (2019).
Wang, J.-R., Liu, G.-Z., Wan, X. & Zhang, C. Quantum criticality of excitonic insulating transition in nodal line semimetal ZrSiS. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.01450.pdf (2019).
Xu, Y. et al. Electronic correlations and flattened band in magnetic Weyl semimetal Co3Sn2S2. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.04561.pdf (2019).
Yang, R. et al. Magnetization-induced band shift in ferromagnetic Weyl semimetal Co3Sn2S2. Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 077403 (2020).
Hu, W. Z. et al. Origin of the spin density wave instability in AFe2As2 (A = Ba,Sr) as revealed by optical spectroscopy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 257005 (2008).
Guritanu, V. et al. Anisotropic optical conductivity and two colors of MgB2. Phys. Rev. B 73, 104509 (2016).
Frenzel, A. J. et al. Anisotropic electrodynamics of type-II Weyl semimetal candidate WTe2. Phys. Rev. B 95, 245140 (2017).
Post, K. W. et al. Sum-rule constraints on the surface state conductance of topological insulators. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 116804 (2015).
Research at Columbia on the optical properties of layered semimetals was supported as part of the Energy Frontier Research Center on Programmable Quantum Materials funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under award no. DE-SC0019443. Research on spin–orbit coupling in intermetallic compounds is funded by ARO grant no. W911nf-17-1-0543. D.N.B. is a Moore Foundation Investigator, EPIQS Initiative grant GBMF4533. The sample synthesis effort is supported by the US DOE under grant no. DE-SC0019068. Y.L.Z. acknowledges financial support from the National Science Foundation through the Penn State 2D Crystal Consortium-Materials Innovation Platform (2DCC-MIP) under NSF cooperative agreement DMR-1539916. J.H. acknowledges financial support from the US DOE, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences programme under award no. DE-SC0019467. M.I.K. acknowledges financial support from JTCFLAG-ERA project GRANSPORT. The numerical calculations presented in this paper have been partially performed at the Supercomputing Center of Wuhan University. S.M. and D.S. acknowledge support from the US DOE (DE-FG02-07ER46451) for high-field infrared measurements performed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, which is supported by NSF Cooperative agreement no. DMR-1644779 and the State of Florida.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Shao, Y., Rudenko, A.N., Hu, J. et al. Electronic correlations in nodal-line semimetals. Nat. Phys. 16, 636–641 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-020-0859-z
This article is cited by
npj Quantum Materials (2022)
npj Quantum Materials (2022)
npj Quantum Materials (2022)
Nature Communications (2022)
Light: Science & Applications (2021)