Amplitude modulation of a single-frequency (ωL) laser with an electro-optic amplitude modulator (EOM) driven by a microwave tone (ωμw) produces two sidebands for spin-control. Encoding a phase step Δϕμw in the microwave signal using an arbitrary waveform egenrator (AWG) produces a change of relative phase 2Δϕμw between the two sidebands. These then drive two-photon Raman transitions between the energy levels of a negatively charged QD, as shown on the right. The optical fields have a single-photon detuning from the excited state of Δ = 800 GHz, and a two-photon detuning from the ESR of δ. Resonant laser pulses optically pump the electron spin at specific moments during the experimental sequence; this serves both to initialize the electron prior to spin control and to read out the population of the spin-↓ state. Photons scattered back through the polarization- and frequency-filtered confocal microscope are detected on a Quantum Opus superconducting-nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD).