Observation of exciton polariton condensation in a perovskite lattice at room temperature

Abstract

Exciton polaritons, with extremely low effective mass1, are regarded as promising candidates to realize Bose–Einstein condensation in lattices for quantum simulations2 towards room-temperature operations3,4,5,6,7,8. Along with the condensation, an efficient exciton polariton quantum simulator9 would require a strong lattice with robust polariton trapping as well as strong intersite coupling to allow coherent quantum motion of polaritons within the lattice. A strong lattice can be characterized with a larger forbidden bandgap opening and a larger lattice bandwidth compared with the linewidth. However, exciton polaritons in such strong lattices have only been shown to condense at cryogenic temperatures3,4,5,6,7,8. Here, we report the observation of non-equilibrium exciton polariton condensation in a one-dimensional strong lead halide perovskite lattice at room temperature. Modulated by deep periodic potentials, the strong lead halide perovskite lattice exhibits a large forbidden bandgap opening up to 13.3 meV and a lattice band up to 8.5 meV wide, which are at least 10 times larger than previous systems. Above a critical density, we observe polariton condensation into py orbital states with long-range spatial coherence at room temperature. Our result opens the route to the implementation of polariton condensates in quantum simulators at room temperature.

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Fig. 1: Schematic diagram and characterization of the one-dimensional perovskite lattice.
Fig. 2: Momentum-space and real-space imaging of the one-dimensional perovskite lattice at room temperature.
Fig. 3: Characterization of exciton polariton condensation in the one-dimensional perovskite lattice at room temperature.
Fig. 4: Build-up of long-range spatial coherence in the condensation regime of the one-dimensional perovskite lattice at room temperature.

Data availability

The data represented in Figs. 2–4 are available with the paper as source data. All other data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Code availability

The code to reproduce the analysis in this study is available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

Q.X. acknowledges strong support from Singapore Ministry of Education via AcRF Tier 3 Programme ‘Geometrical Quantum Materials’ (MOE2018-T3-1-002), AcRF Tier 2 grant MOE2015-T2-1-047 and Tier 1 grants RG103/15 and RG113/16. T.C.H.L. acknowledges the support of the Singapore Ministry of Education via AcRF Tier 2 grants (MOE2017-T2-1-001 and MOE2018-T2-02-068).

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R.S. fabricated the device and performed all the optical measurements. S.G. and T.C.H.L. performed the theoretical calculations. S.L. conducted the atomic force microscopy measurements. J.W and C.D. discussed the results. R.S., S.G., T.C.H.L. and Q.X. analysed the data and wrote the manuscript, with input from all the authors. T.C.H.L. and Q.X. supervised the whole project.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Timothy C. H. Liew or Qihua Xiong.

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Supplementary Information

Supplementary Sections 1–8 and Figs. 1–11.

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Source Data Fig. 2

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Source Data Fig. 3

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Source Data Fig. 4

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Su, R., Ghosh, S., Wang, J. et al. Observation of exciton polariton condensation in a perovskite lattice at room temperature. Nat. Phys. 16, 301–306 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-019-0764-5

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