Integrated optics provides a versatile platform for quantum information processing and transceiving with photons1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. The implementation of quantum protocols requires the capability to generate multiple high-quality single photons and process photons with multiple high-fidelity operators9,10,11. However, previous experimental demonstrations were faced by major challenges in realizing sufficiently high-quality multi-photon sources and multi-qubit operators in a single integrated system4,5,6,7,8, and fully chip-based implementations of multi-qubit quantum tasks remain a significant challenge1,2,3. Here, we report the demonstration of chip-to-chip quantum teleportation and genuine multipartite entanglement, the core functionalities in quantum technologies, on silicon-photonic circuitry. Four single photons with high purity and indistinguishablity are produced in an array of microresonator sources, without requiring any spectral filtering. Up to four qubits are processed in a reprogrammable linear-optic quantum circuit that facilitates Bell projection and fusion operation. The generation, processing, transceiving and measurement of multi-photon multi-qubit states are all achieved in micrometre-scale silicon chips, fabricated by the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor process. Our work lays the groundwork for large-scale integrated photonic quantum technologies for communications and computations.
Your institute does not have access to this article
Open Access articles citing this article.
Frontiers of Optoelectronics Open Access 11 April 2022
Nanoscale Research Letters Open Access 02 April 2022
Nature Communications Open Access 04 March 2022
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to the entire Nature family of 50+ journals
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
The computer code used for data analysis is available on request from the corresponding author.
Politi, A., Cryan, M. J., Rarity, J. G., Yu, S. & O’Brien, J. L. Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits. Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
Metcalf, B. J. et al. Quantum teleportation on a photonic chip. Nat. Photon. 8, 770–774 (2014).
Harris, N. C. et al. Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor. Nat. Photon. 11, 447–452 (2017).
Silverstone, J. W. et al. Qubit entanglement between ringresonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip. Nat. Commun. 6, 7948 (2015).
Reimer, C. et al. Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs. Science 351, 1176–1180 (2016).
Wang, J. et al. Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics. Science 360, 285–291 (2018).
Zhang, M. et al. Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states with a single silicon nanowire. Light Sci. Appl. 8, 41 (2019).
Adcock, J. C., Vigliar, C., Santagati, R., Siverstone, J. & Thompson, M. Programmable four-photon graph states on a silicon chip. Nat. Commun. 10, 3528 (2019).
Knill, E., Laflamme, R. & Milburn, G. J. A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics. Nature 409, 46–52 (2000).
Nielsen, M. A. Optical quantum computation using cluster states. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 040503 (2004).
Pirandola, S., Eisert, J., Weedbrook, C., Furusawa, A. & Braunstein, S. L. Advances in quantum teleportation. Nat. Photon. 9, 641–652 (2015).
Valivarthi, R. et al. Quantum teleportation across a metropolitan fibre network. Nat. Photon. 10, 676–680 (2016).
Ren, J.-G. et al. Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation. Nature 549, 70–73 (2017).
Gottesman, D. & Chuang, I. L. Demonstrating the viability of universal quantum computation using teleportation and single-qubit operations. Nature 402, 390–393 (1999).
Wehner, S., Elkouss, D. & Hanson, R. Quantum internet: a vision for the road ahead. Science 362, eaam9288 (2018).
Wang, J. et al. Integrated photonic quantum technologies. Nat. Photon. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-019-0532-1 (2019).
Grice, W., U’Ren, A. & Walmsley, I. Eliminating frequency and space–time correlations in multiphoton states. Phys. Rev. A 64, 063815 (2001).
Paesani, S. et al. Generation and sampling of quantum states of light in a silicon chip. Nat. Phys. 15, 925–929 (2019).
Vernon, Z. et al. Truly unentangled photon pairs without spectral filtering. Opt. Lett. 42, 3638–3641 (2017).
Vernon, Z., Liscidini, M. & Sipe, J. E. No free lunch: the tradeoff between heralding rate and efficiency in microresonatorbased heralded single photon sources. Opt. Lett. 41, 788–791 (2016).
Grassani, D. et al. Micrometer-scale integrated silicon source of time-energy entangled photons. Optica 2, 88–94 (2015).
Faruque, I. I., Sinclair, G., Bonneau, D., Rarity, J. G. & Thompson, M. G. On-chip quantum interference with heralded photons from two independent micro-ring resonator sources in silicon photonics. Opt. Express 26, 20379–20395 (2018).
Bergamasco, N., Menotti, M., Sipe, J. E. & Liscidini, M. Generation of path-encoded Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states. Phys. Rev. Appl. 8, 054014 (2017).
Ding, Y., Peucheret, C., Ou, H. & Yvind, K. Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the SOI platform with −0.58 dB coupling efficiency. Opt. Lett. 39, 5348–5350 (2014).
Wang, J. et al. Chip-to-chip quantum photonic interconnect by path-polarization interconversion. Optica 3, 407–413 (2016).
Greenberger, D. M., Horne, M. A., Shimony, A. & Zeilinger, A. Bell’s theorem without inequalities. Am. J. Phys. 58, 1131–1143 (1990).
Bourennane, M. et al. Experimental detection of multipartite entanglement using witness operators. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087902 (2004). (8).
Ma, Z.-H. et al. Measure of genuine multipartite entanglement with computable lower bounds. Phys. Rev. A 83, 062325 (2011).
Bavaresco, J. et al. Measurements in two bases are sufficient for certifying high-dimensional entanglement. Nat. Phys. 14, 1032–1037 (2018).
Kaneda, F. & Paul, K. High-efficiency single-photon generation via large-scale active time multiplexing. Sci. Adv. 5, eaaw8586 (2019).
Tóth, G. & Apellaniz, I. Quantum metrology from a quantum information science perspective. J. Phys. A 47, 424006 (2014).
We thank G.J. Mendoza and D. Bonneau for useful discussions. We thank W.A. Murray, M. Loutit, E. Johnston, J.W. Silverstone and L. Kling for experimental assistance. We acknowledge support from the National Key R&D Program of China (2019YFA0308700, 2018YFB1107205), the Natural Science Foundation of China (nos 61975001, 61590933, 11527901 and 11825402), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Z190005), Beijing Academy of Quantum Information Sciences (Y18G21) and Key R&D Program of Guangdong Province (2018B030329001). D.L., I.I.F., J.G.R. and M.G.T. acknowledge support from UK Quantum Technology Hub for Quantum Communication Technologies funded by EPSRC: EP/M013472/1; programme grant no. EP/L024020/1. Y.D. acknowledges support from Denmark SPOC (DNRF123), Villum Fonden, QUANPIC (00025298). I.I.F. acknowledges support from the FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network PICQUE (608062). M.H. acknowledges support from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) through the START project (Y879-N27) and the joint Czech–Austrian project MultiQUEST (I 3053-N27, GF17-33780L). M.M. acknowledges support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC; EP/P024114/1) and the QuantERA ERA-NET co-fund (FWF Project I3773-N36). K.R. acknowledges support from QuantERA. J.L.O. acknowledges a Royal Society Wolfson Merit Award and a Royal Academy of Engineering Chair in Emerging Technologies. M.G.T. acknowledges support from a European Research Council (ERC) starter grant (ERC-2014-STG 640079) and an EPSRC Early Career Fellowship (EP/K033085/1).
M.T. is involved in developing quantum photonic technologies at PsiQuantum Corporation.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Llewellyn, D., Ding, Y., Faruque, I.I. et al. Chip-to-chip quantum teleportation and multi-photon entanglement in silicon. Nat. Phys. 16, 148–153 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-019-0727-x
Nanoscale Research Letters (2022)
Nature Nanotechnology (2022)
Scientific Reports (2022)
Nature Photonics (2022)
Nature Reviews Physics (2022)