Integrated optics provides a versatile platform for quantum information processing and transceiving with photons1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. The implementation of quantum protocols requires the capability to generate multiple high-quality single photons and process photons with multiple high-fidelity operators9,10,11. However, previous experimental demonstrations were faced by major challenges in realizing sufficiently high-quality multi-photon sources and multi-qubit operators in a single integrated system4,5,6,7,8, and fully chip-based implementations of multi-qubit quantum tasks remain a significant challenge1,2,3. Here, we report the demonstration of chip-to-chip quantum teleportation and genuine multipartite entanglement, the core functionalities in quantum technologies, on silicon-photonic circuitry. Four single photons with high purity and indistinguishablity are produced in an array of microresonator sources, without requiring any spectral filtering. Up to four qubits are processed in a reprogrammable linear-optic quantum circuit that facilitates Bell projection and fusion operation. The generation, processing, transceiving and measurement of multi-photon multi-qubit states are all achieved in micrometre-scale silicon chips, fabricated by the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor process. Our work lays the groundwork for large-scale integrated photonic quantum technologies for communications and computations.
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The computer code used for data analysis is available on request from the corresponding author.
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We thank G.J. Mendoza and D. Bonneau for useful discussions. We thank W.A. Murray, M. Loutit, E. Johnston, J.W. Silverstone and L. Kling for experimental assistance. We acknowledge support from the National Key R&D Program of China (2019YFA0308700, 2018YFB1107205), the Natural Science Foundation of China (nos 61975001, 61590933, 11527901 and 11825402), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Z190005), Beijing Academy of Quantum Information Sciences (Y18G21) and Key R&D Program of Guangdong Province (2018B030329001). Y.D. acknowledges support from Denmark SPOC (DNRF123), Villum Fonden, QUANPIC (00025298). I.I.F. acknowledges support from the FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network PICQUE (608062). M.H. acknowledges support from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) through the START project (Y879-N27) and the joint Czech–Austrian project MultiQUEST (I 3053-N27, GF17-33780L). M.M. acknowledges support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC; EP/P024114/1) and the QuantERA ERA-NET co-fund (FWF Project I3773-N36). K.R. acknowledges support from QuantERA. J.L.O. acknowledges a Royal Society Wolfson Merit Award and a Royal Academy of Engineering Chair in Emerging Technologies. M.G.T. acknowledges support from a European Research Council (ERC) starter grant (ERC-2014-STG 640079) and an EPSRC Early Career Fellowship (EP/K033085/1).
M.T. is involved in developing quantum photonic technologies at PsiQuantum Corporation.
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Llewellyn, D., Ding, Y., Faruque, I.I. et al. Chip-to-chip quantum teleportation and multi-photon entanglement in silicon. Nat. Phys. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-019-0727-x