Chip-to-chip quantum teleportation and multi-photon entanglement in silicon


Integrated optics provides a versatile platform for quantum information processing and transceiving with photons1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. The implementation of quantum protocols requires the capability to generate multiple high-quality single photons and process photons with multiple high-fidelity operators9,10,11. However, previous experimental demonstrations were faced by major challenges in realizing sufficiently high-quality multi-photon sources and multi-qubit operators in a single integrated system4,5,6,7,8, and fully chip-based implementations of multi-qubit quantum tasks remain a significant challenge1,2,3. Here, we report the demonstration of chip-to-chip quantum teleportation and genuine multipartite entanglement, the core functionalities in quantum technologies, on silicon-photonic circuitry. Four single photons with high purity and indistinguishablity are produced in an array of microresonator sources, without requiring any spectral filtering. Up to four qubits are processed in a reprogrammable linear-optic quantum circuit that facilitates Bell projection and fusion operation. The generation, processing, transceiving and measurement of multi-photon multi-qubit states are all achieved in micrometre-scale silicon chips, fabricated by the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor process. Our work lays the groundwork for large-scale integrated photonic quantum technologies for communications and computations.

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Fig. 1: Microresonator-enhanced multi-photon multi-qubit quantum devices in silicon.
Fig. 2: Photon pair generation in an array of microresonator nonlinear sources.
Fig. 3: Programmable linear-optic quantum circuits for Bell projection and fusion operation.
Fig. 4: Chip-to-chip quantum teleportation and multi-photon multi-qubit entanglement.

Data availability

The data represented in Figs. 24 are available as source data in the Supplementary Information. All other data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Code availability

The computer code used for data analysis is available on request from the corresponding author.


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We thank G.J. Mendoza and D. Bonneau for useful discussions. We thank W.A. Murray, M. Loutit, E. Johnston, J.W. Silverstone and L. Kling for experimental assistance. We acknowledge support from the National Key R&D Program of China (2019YFA0308700, 2018YFB1107205), the Natural Science Foundation of China (nos 61975001, 61590933, 11527901 and 11825402), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Z190005), Beijing Academy of Quantum Information Sciences (Y18G21) and Key R&D Program of Guangdong Province (2018B030329001). Y.D. acknowledges support from Denmark SPOC (DNRF123), Villum Fonden, QUANPIC (00025298). I.I.F. acknowledges support from the FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network PICQUE (608062). M.H. acknowledges support from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) through the START project (Y879-N27) and the joint Czech–Austrian project MultiQUEST (I 3053-N27, GF17-33780L). M.M. acknowledges support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC; EP/P024114/1) and the QuantERA ERA-NET co-fund (FWF Project I3773-N36). K.R. acknowledges support from QuantERA. J.L.O. acknowledges a Royal Society Wolfson Merit Award and a Royal Academy of Engineering Chair in Emerging Technologies. M.G.T. acknowledges support from a European Research Council (ERC) starter grant (ERC-2014-STG 640079) and an EPSRC Early Career Fellowship (EP/K033085/1).

Author information

All authors contributed to the discussion and development of the project. J.W. devised the concept of the experiment. Y.D. designed and fabricated the device. D.L., Y.D., I.I.F., J.W., S.P., D.B. and R.S. performed the experiment. J.W., D.L., Y.D., I.I.F., Y.-J.Q., Y.L., Y.-F.X., M.H., M.M., G.F.S. and X.Z. performed the theoretical analysis. K.R., J.L.O., J.G.R., Q.G., L.K.O., Y.D., J.W. and M.G.T. managed the project. The manuscript was written by J.W., D.L., Y.D. and I.I.F., with input from all other authors.

Correspondence to Jianwei Wang.

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Competing interests

M.T. is involved in developing quantum photonic technologies at PsiQuantum Corporation.

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figs. 1–12 and discussion.

Source data

Source Data Fig. 2

Source data for Fig. 2

Source Data Fig. 3

Source data for Fig. 3

Source Data Fig. 4

Source data for Fig. 4

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Llewellyn, D., Ding, Y., Faruque, I.I. et al. Chip-to-chip quantum teleportation and multi-photon entanglement in silicon. Nat. Phys. (2019).

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