Light-induced anomalous Hall effect in graphene

Article metrics

Abstract

Many non-equilibrium phenomena have been discovered or predicted in optically driven quantum solids1. Examples include light-induced superconductivity2,3 and Floquet-engineered topological phases4,5,6,7,8. These are short-lived effects that should lead to measurable changes in electrical transport, which can be characterized using an ultrafast device architecture based on photoconductive switches9. Here, we report the observation of a light-induced anomalous Hall effect in monolayer graphene driven by a femtosecond pulse of circularly polarized light. The dependence of the effect on a gate potential used to tune the Fermi level reveals multiple features that reflect a Floquet-engineered topological band structure4,5, similar to the band structure originally proposed by Haldane10. This includes an approximately 60 meV wide conductance plateau centred at the Dirac point, where a gap of equal magnitude is predicted to open. We find that when the Fermi level lies within this plateau the estimated anomalous Hall conductance saturates around 1.8 ± 0.4 e2/h.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Light-induced topological Floquet bands in graphene and device architecture used to detect ultrafast anomalous Hall currents.
Fig. 2: Ultrafast anomalous Hall currents in graphene driven by circularly polarized light.
Fig. 3: Helicity-dependent current behaviour under different source–drain voltage geometries.
Fig. 4: Evidence for topological Floquet bands.

Data availability

The data represented in Figs. 2–4 are available with the online version of this paper. All other data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

References

  1. 1.

    Basov, D. N., Averitt, R. D. & Hsieh, D. Towards properties on demand in quantum materials. Nat. Mater. 16, 1077–1088 (2017).

  2. 2.

    Fausti, D. et al. Light-induced superconductivity in a stripe-ordered cuprate. Science 331, 189–191 (2011).

  3. 3.

    Mitrano, M. et al. Possible light-induced superconductivity in K3C60 at high temperature. Nature 530, 461–464 (2016).

  4. 4.

    Oka, T. & Aoki, H. Photovoltaic Hall effect in graphene. Phys. Rev. B 79, 081406(R) (2009).

  5. 5.

    Kitagawa, T., Oka, T., Brataas, A., Fu, L. & Demler, E. Transport properties of nonequilibrium systems under the application of light: photoinduced quantum Hall insulators without Landau levels. Phys. Rev. B 84, 235108 (2011).

  6. 6.

    Lindner, N. H., Refael, G. & Galitski, V. Floquet topological insulator in semiconductor quantum wells. Nat. Phys. 7, 490–495 (2011).

  7. 7.

    Sie, E. et al. Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2. Nat. Mater. 14, 290–294 (2015).

  8. 8.

    Bukov, M., D’Alessio, L. & Polkovnikov, A. Universal high-frequency behavior of periodically driven systems: from dynamical stabilization to Floquet engineering. Adv. Phys. 64, 139–226 (2015). 2.

  9. 9.

    Auston, D. H. Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon. Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 101–103 (1975).

  10. 10.

    Haldane, F. D. M. Model for a quantum Hall effect without Landau levels: condensed-matter realization of the “parity anomaly”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2015–2018 (1988).

  11. 11.

    Xiao, D., Chang, M.-C. & Niu, Q. Berry phase effects on electronic properties. Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1959–2007 (2010).

  12. 12.

    Hasan, M. Z. & Kane, C. L. Colloquium: Topological insulators. Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).

  13. 13.

    Qi, X.-L. & Zhang, S.-C. Topological insulators and superconductors. Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057–1110 (2011).

  14. 14.

    Bernevig, B. A. & Hughes, T. L. Topological Insulators and Topological Superconductors (Princeton University Press, 2013).

  15. 15.

    Foa Torres, L. E. F., Perez-Piskunow, P. M., Balseiro, C. A. & Usaj, G. Multiterminal conductance of a Floquet topological insulator. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 266801 (2014).

  16. 16.

    Chang, C.-Z. et al. Experimental observation of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a magnetic topological insulator. Science 340, 176–170 (2013).

  17. 17.

    König, M. et al. Quantum spin Hall insulator state in HgTe quantum wells. Science 318, 766–770 (2007).

  18. 18.

    Rechtsman, M. C. et al. Photonic Floquet topological insulator. Nature 496, 196–200 (2013).

  19. 19.

    Jotzu, G. et al. Experimental realization of the topological Haldane model with ultracold fermions. Nature 515, 237–240 (2014).

  20. 20.

    Wang, Y. H., Steinberg, H., Jarillo-Herrero, P. & Gedik, N. Observation of Floquet–Bloch states on the surface of a topological insulator. Science 342, 453–457 (2013).

  21. 21.

    Yin, C. M. et al. Observation of the photoinduced anomalous Hall effect in GaN-based heterostructures. Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 122104 (2011).

  22. 22.

    Mak, K. F., McGill, K. L., Park, J. & McEuen, P. L. The valley Hall effect in MoS2 transistors. Science 344, 1489–1492 (2014).

  23. 23.

    Seifert, P. et al. In-plane anisotropy of the photon-helicity induced linear Hall effect in few-layer WTe2. Phys. Rev. B. 99, 161403(R) (2019).

  24. 24.

    Geim, A. K. & Novoselov, K. S. The rise of graphene. Nat. Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).

  25. 25.

    Zhang, Y., Tan, Y.-W., Stormer, H. L. & Kim, P. Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene. Nature 438, 201–204 (2005).

  26. 26.

    Glazov, M. M. & Ganichev, S. D. High frequency electric field induced nonlinear effects in graphene. Phys. Rep. 535, 101–138 (2014).

  27. 27.

    Sato, S. et al. Microscopic theory for the light-induced anomalous Hall effect in graphene. Phys. Rev. B 99, 214302 (2019).

  28. 28.

    Wang, F. et al. Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene. Science 320, 206–209 (2008).

  29. 29.

    Usaj, G., Perez-Piskunow, P. M., Foa Torres, L. E. F. & Balseiro, C. A. Irradiated graphene as a tunable Floquet topological insulator. Phys. Rev. B 90, 115423 (2014).

  30. 30.

    Mikami, T. et al. Brillouin-Wigner theory for high-frequency expansion in periodically driven systems: application to Floquet topological insulators. Phys. Rev. B 93, 144307 (2016).

  31. 31.

    Dehghani, H., Oka, T. & Mitra, A. Out-of-equilibrium electrons and the Hall conductance of a Floquet topological insulator. Phys. Rev. B 91, 155422 (2015).

  32. 32.

    Sentef, M. A. et al. Theory of Floquet band formation and local pseudospin textures in pump–probe photoemission of graphene. Nat. Commun. 6, 7047 (2015).

  33. 33.

    Morimoto, T. & Nagaosa, N. Topological nature of nonlinear optical effects in solids. Sci. Adv. 2, e1501524 (2016).

Download references

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge H. Aoki, L. Mathey, M. Nuske, A. Rubio, S.A. Sato, M.A. Sentef and P. Tang for fruitful discussions and B. Fiedler, B. Höhling, E. König and M. Volkmann for technical support. The research leading to these results received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement no. 319286 (QMAC). J.W.M. received funding from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

Author information

J.W.M. conceived the experiment together with A.C. A.C. and G.M. supervised the project. J.W.M. and F.-U.S. designed and built the experimental setup. J.W.M., F.-U.S., B.S., T.M. and G.M. developed the on-chip circuitry. B.S. fabricated the graphene devices. B.S., J.W.M. and F.-U.S. performed the measurements. B.S. and J.W.M. analysed the data with support from T.M., G.J. and G.M. Custom measurement electronics and circuit simulations were provided by T.M. and G.M. Floquet calculations were performed by G.J. The manuscript was written by J.W.M., G.J. and A.C. with contributions from all other authors.

Correspondence to J. W. McIver or A. Cavalleri.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Additional methodological details, Supplementary Figs. 1–20 and refs. 34–50.

Source data

Source data for Fig. 2

Source data for Fig. 2.

Source data for Fig. 3

Source data for Fig. 3.

Source data for Fig. 4

Source data for Fig. 4.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

McIver, J.W., Schulte, B., Stein, F. et al. Light-induced anomalous Hall effect in graphene. Nat. Phys. (2019) doi:10.1038/s41567-019-0698-y

Download citation

Further reading