The evolution of information technology has been driven by the discovery of new forms of large magnetoresistance, such as giant magnetoresistance1,2 and tunnelling magnetoresistance3,4, in magnetic multilayers. Recently, new types of this effect have been observed in much simpler bilayers consisting of ferromagnetic and non-magnetic thin films5,6,7,8,9,10. However, the magnitude of the change in resistance with magnetic field in these materials is very small, varying between 0.01 and 1%. Here, we demonstrate that non-magnetic–ferromagnetic bilayers consisting of a conducting non-magnetic InAs quantum well and an insulating ferromagnetic (Ga,Fe)Sb layer exhibit giant proximity magnetoresistance of approximately 80% at high magnetic field, and that its magnitude can be controlled by a gate. The mechanism for this large magnetoresistance is a strong magnetic proximity effect. The spin splitting in the InAs quantum well induced by the magnetic proximity effect can be varied between 0.17 meV and 3.8 meV by varying the gate voltage. In principle, this provides a mechanism to locally access Majorana fermions in InAs-based Josephson junctions11,12,13,14 and introduces a new concept of magnetic-gating spin transistors in which the non-magnetic channel current is modulated by both electrical and magnetic means.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to the entire Nature family of 50+ journals
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request.
Baibich, M. N. et al. Giant magnetoresistance of (001)Fe/(001)Cr magnetic superlattices. Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2472–2475 (1988).
Binasch, G., Grünberg, P., Saurenbach, F. & Zinn, W. Enhanced magnetoresistance in layered magnetic structures with antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange. Phys. Rev. B 39, 4828–4830 (1989).
Yuasa, S., Nagahama, T., Fukushima, A., Suzuki, Y. & Ando, K. Giant room-temperature magnetoresistance in single-crystal Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions. Nat. Mater. 3, 868–871 (2004).
Parkin, S. S. P. et al. Giant tunnelling magnetoresistance at room temperature with MgO (100) tunnel barriers. Nat. Mater. 3, 862–867 (2004).
Nakayama, H. et al. Spin Hall magnetoresistance induced by a nonequilibrium proximity effect. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206601 (2013).
Cho, S., Baek, S. C., Lee, K.-D., Jo, Y. & Park, B.-G. Large spin Hall magnetoresistance and its correlation to the spin-orbit torque in W/CoFeB/MgO structures. Sci. Rep. 5, 14668 (2015).
Jackson, C. A. & Stemmer, S. Interface-induced magnetism in perovskite quantum wells. Phys. Rev. B 88, 180403(R) (2013).
Avci, C. O. et al. Unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/normal metal bilayers. Nat. Phys. 11, 570–575 (2015).
Yasuda, K. et al. Large unidirectional magnetoresistance in a magnetic topological insulator. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 127202 (2016).
Lv, Y. et al. Unidirectional spin-Hall and Rashba-Edelstein magnetoresistance in topological insulator-ferromagnet layer heterostructures. Nat. Commun. 9, 111 (2018).
Takayanagi, H. & Kawakami, T. Superconducting proximity effect in the native inversion layer on InAs. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2449–2452 (1985).
Yu, W. et al. Superconducting proximity effect in inverted InAs/GaSb quantum well structures with Ta electrodes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 192107 (2014).
Das, A. et al. Zero-bias peaks and splitting in an Al–InAs nanowire topological superconductor as a signature of Majorana fermions. Nat. Phys. 8, 887–895 (2012).
Nakamura, T. et al. Proximity-induced superconductivity in a ferromagnetic semiconductor (In,Fe)As. J. Phys. 969, 012036 (2018).
Ohno, H., Munekata, H., Penney, T., von Molnar, S. & Chang, L. L. Magnetotransport properties of p-type (In,Mn)As diluted magnetic III-V semiconductors. Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2664–2667 (1992).
Ohno, H. Making nonmagnetic semiconductors ferromagnetic. Science 281, 951–956 (1998).
Hayashi, T. et al. (GaMn)As: GaAs-based III-V diluted magnetic semiconductors grown by molecular beam epitaxy. J. Cryst. Growth 175-176, 1063–1068 (1997).
Tanaka, M., Ohya, S. & Hai, P. N. Recent progress in III-V based ferromagnetic semiconductors: band structure, Fermi level, and tunneling transport. Appl Phys. Rev. 1, 011102 (2014).
Vobornik, I. et al. Magnetic proximity effect as a pathway to spintronic applications of topological insulators. Nano Lett. 11, 4079–4082 (2011).
Katmis, F. et al. A high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity coupling. Nature 533, 513–516 (2016).
Žutić, I., Matos-Abiague, A., Scharf, B., Dery, H. & Belashchenko, K. Proximitized materials. Mate. Today 22, 85–107 (2019).
Sau, J. D., Lutchyn, R. M., Tewari, S. & Das Sarma, S. Generic new platform for topological quantum computation using semiconductor heterostructures. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 040502 (2010).
Alicea, J. New directions in the pursuit of Majorana fermions in solid state systems. Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 076501 (2012).
Lazić, P., Belashchenko, K. D. & Žutić, I. Effective gating and tunable magnetic proximity effects in two-dimensional heterostructures. Phys. Rev. B 93, 241401(R) (2016).
Singh, S. et al. Spin inversion in graphene spin valves by gate-tunable magnetic proximity effect at one-dimensional contacts. Nat. Commun. 9, 2869 (2018).
Haigh, S. J. et al. Magnetoresistance of vertical Co-graphene-NiFe junctions controlled by charge transfer and proximity-induced spin splitting in graphene. 2D Mater. 4, 031004 (2017).
Tu, N. T., Hai, P. N., Anh, L. D. & Tanaka, M. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb. Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 192401 (2016).
Tu, N. T., Hai, P. N., Anh, L. D. & Tanaka, M. Magnetic properties and intrinsic ferromagnetism in (Ga,Fe)Sb ferromagnetic semiconductors. Phys. Rev. B 92, 144403 (2015).
Herling, F. et al. Spin-orbit interaction in InAs/GaSb heterostructures quantified by weak antilocalization. Phys. Rev. B 95, 155307 (2017).
Chiba, T., Takahashi, S. & Bauer, G. E. W. Magnetic-proximity-induced magnetoresistance on topological insulators. Phys. Rev. B 95, 094428 (2017).
Khosla, R. P. & Fischer, J. R. Magnetoresistance in degenerate CdS: localized magnetic moments. Phys. Rev. B 2, 4084–4097 (1970).
Sriharsha, K., Anh., L. D., Tu, N. T., Goel, S. & Tanaka, M. Magneto-optical spectra and the presence of an impurity band in p-type ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb with high Curie temperature. APL Mater. 7, 021105 (2019).
Hai, P. N., Anh, L. D. & Tanaka, M. Electron effective mass in n-type electron-induced ferromagnetic semiconductor (In,Fe)As: evidence of conduction band transport. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 252410 (2012).
Gunnarsson, O. & Lundqvist, B. I. Exchange and correlation in atoms, molecules, and solids by the spin-density-functional formalism. Phys. Rev. B 13, 4274–4298 (1976).
A part of this work was conducted at Advanced Characterization Nanotechnology Platform of the University of Tokyo, supported by ‘Nanotechnology Platform’ of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan. Funding: this work was partly supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (numbers 16H02095, 17H04922, 18H05345), the CREST Program (JPMJCR1777) of the Japan Science and Technology Agency, Yazaki Memorial Foundation for Science and Technology, and the Spintronics Research Network of Japan (Spin-RNJ).
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Takiguchi, K., Anh, L.D., Chiba, T. et al. Giant gate-controlled proximity magnetoresistance in semiconductor-based ferromagnetic–non-magnetic bilayers. Nat. Phys. 15, 1134–1139 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-019-0621-6