Since the seminal ideas of Berezinskii, Kosterlitz and Thouless, topological excitations have been at the heart of our understanding of a whole novel class of phase transitions. In most cases, those transitions are controlled by a single type of topological objects. There are, however, some situations, still poorly understood, where two dual topological excitations fight to control the phase diagram and the transition. Finding experimental realizations of such cases is thus of considerable interest. We show here that this situation occurs in BaCo2V2O8, a spin-1/2 Ising-like quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnet, when subjected to a uniform magnetic field transverse to the Ising axis. Using neutron scattering experiments, we measure a drastic modification of the quantum excitations beyond a critical value of the magnetic field. This quantum phase transition is identified, through a comparison with theoretical calculations, to be a transition between two different types of solitonic topological object, which are captured by different components of the dynamical structure factor.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $4.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Berezinskii, V. L. Destruction of long-range order in one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems having a continuous symmetry group I. Classical systems. Sov. Phys. JETP 32, 493–500 (1971).
Berezinskii, V. L. Destruction of long-range order in one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems having a continuous symmetry group II. Quantum systems. Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 610–616 (1972).
Kosterlitz, J. M. & Thouless, D.J. Ordering, metastability and phase transitions in two-dimensional systems. J. Phys. C 6, 1181–1203 (1973).
José, J. V. 40 Years of Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless Theory (World Scientific, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2013).
Giamarchi, T. Quantum Physics in One Dimension (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2004).
Haldane, F. D. M. Continuum dynamics of the 1-D Heisenberg antiferromagnet: Identification with the O(3) nonlinear sigma model. Phys. Lett. A 93, 464–468 (1983).
Haldane, F. D. M. Nonlinear field theory of large-spin Heisenberg antiferromagnets: semiclassically quantized solitons of the one-dimensional easy-axis Néel state. Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1153–1156 (1983).
Thouless, D. J., Kohmoto, M., Nightingale, M. P. & den Nijs, M. Quantized Hall conductance in a two-dimensional periodic potential. Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 405–408 (1982).
Hasan, M. Z. & Kane, C. L. Colloquium: topological insulators. Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
Haldane, F. D. M. Model for a quantum Hall effect without Landau levels: condensed-matter realization of the “parity anomaly”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2015–2018 (1983).
Jotzu, G. et al. Experimental realization of the topological Haldane model with ultracold fermions. Nature 515, 237–240 (2014).
Kosterlitz, J. M . The critical properties of the two-dimensional xy model. J. Phys. C 7, 1046–1060 (1974).
Rajaraman, R. Solitons and Instantons: An Introduction to Solitons and Instantons in Quantum Field Theory (Amsterdam, North Holland, 1982).
José, J. V., Kadanoff, L. P., Kirkpatrick, S. & Nelson, D. R. Renormalization, vortices, and symmetry-breaking perturbations in the two-dimensional planar model. Phys. Rev. B 16, 1217–1241 (1977).
Fertig, H. A. Deconfinement in the two-dimensional XY model. Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 035703 (2002).
Giamarchi, T. & Schulz, H.J. Theory of spin-anisotropic electron–electron interactions in quasi-one dimensional metals. J. Phys. Fr. 49, 819–835 (1988).
Lecheminant, P., Gogolin, A. O. & Nersesyan, A. A. Criticality in self-dual sine-Gordon models. Nucl. Phys. B 639, 502–523 (2002).
He, Z., Fu, D., Kyômen, T., Taniyama, T. & Itoh, M. Crystal growth and magnetic properties of BaCo2V2O8. Chem. Mater. 17, 2924–2926 (2005).
Kimura, S. et al. Novel ordering of an S = 1/2 quasi-1D Ising-like antiferromagnet in magnetic field. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 057202 (2008).
Canévet, E. et al. Field-induced magnetic behavior in quasi-one-dimensional Ising-like antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8: A single-crystal neutron diffraction study. Phys. Rev. B 87, 054408 (2013).
Kimura, S. et al. Collapse of magnetic order of the quasi one-dimensional Ising-like antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8 in transverse fields. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn 82, 033706 (2013).
Niesen, S. K. et al. Magnetic phase diagrams, domain switching, and quantum phase transition of the quasi-one-dimensional Ising-like antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8. Phys. Rev. B 87, 224413 (2013).
Kimura, S. et al. High field magnetism of the quasi one-dimensional anisotropic antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 51, 99–102 (2006).
Kimura, S. et al. Field-induced order–disorder transition in antiferromagnetic BaCo2V2O8 driven by a softening of spinon excitation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 087602 (2007).
Grenier, B. et al. Longitudinal and transverse Zeeman ladders in the Ising-like chain antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 017201 (2015); erratum 115, 119902 (2015).
Ishimura, N. & Shiba, H. Dynamical correlation functions of one-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model with spin l/2. Prog. Theor. Phys. 63, 743–758 (1980).
Wang, Z. et al. Spinon confinement in the one-dimensional Ising-like antiferromagnet SrCo2V2O8. Phys. Rev. B 91, 140404(R) (2015).
Wang, Z. et al. From confined spinons to emergent fermions: observation of elementary magnetic excitations in a transverse-field Ising chain. Phys. Rev. B 94, 125130 (2016).
Bera, A. K. et al. Spinon confinement in a quasi-one-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg magnet. Phys. Rev. B 96, 054423 (2017).
Sato, M. & Oshikawa, M. Coupled S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains in an effective staggered field. Phys. Rev. B 69, 054406 (2004).
Okutani, A., Kimura, S., Takeuchi, T. & Hagiwara, M. High-field multi-frequency ESR in the quasi-1D = 1/2 Ising-like antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8 in a transverse field. Appl. Magn. Reson. 46, 1003–1006 (2015).
Vidal, G. Classical simulation of infinite-size quantum lattice systems in one spatial dimension. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 070201 (2007).
Phien, H. N., Vidal, G. & McCulloch, I. P. Infinite boundary conditions for matrix product state calculations. Phys. Rev. B 86, 245107 (2012).
Affleck, I. & Oshikawa, M. Field-induced gap in Cu benzoate and other S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic chains. Phys. Rev. B 60, 1038–1056 (1999).
Berg, E., Dalla Torre, E., Giamarchi, T. & Altman, E. Rise and fall of hidden string order of lattice bosons. Phys. Rev. B 77, 245119 (2008).
Endres, M. et al. Observation of correlated particle-hole pairs and string order in low-dimensional Mott insulators. Science 334, 200–203 (2011).
Tsvelik, A. M. & Kuklov, A. B. Parafermion excitations in a superfluid of quasi-molecular chains. New. J. Phys. 14, 115033 (2012).
Lejay, P. et al. Crystal growth and magnetic property of MCo2V2O8 (M = Sr and Ba). J. Cryst. Growth 317, 128–131 (2011).
Boehm, M. et al. ThALES–three axis low energy spectroscopy for highly correlated electron systems. Neutron News 26, 18–21 (2015).
Schmalzl, K. et al. The upgrade of the cold neutron three-axis spectrometer IN12 at the ILL. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 819, 89–98 (2016).
We thank R. Ballou, C. Berthier, M. Horvatić, M. Klanjšek and S. Niesen for fruitful discussions, P. Courtois and R. Silvestre for their help in the sample co-alignment carried out at ILL before the experiment at PSI, E. Villard, B. Vettard and M. Bartkowiak for their technical support during the INS experiments on ThALES (ILL), IN12 (ILL) and TASP (PSI), respectively, and J. Debray, A. Hadj-Azzem and J. Balay for their contribution to the crystal growth, cut and orientation. We acknowledge ILL and PSI for allocating neutron beam time. This work was partly supported by the French ANR Project DYMAGE (ANR-13-BS04-0013). S.T. is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation under Division II and ImPACT project (no. 2015-PM12-05-01) from the Japan Science and Technology Agency. M.M. acknowledges funding from the Swedish Research Council (VR) through a neutron project grant (Dnr 2016-06955). T.L. acknowledges support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through CRC 1238 Project A02. S.C.F. is supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant no. 16J04731.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Faure, Q., Takayoshi, S., Petit, S. et al. Topological quantum phase transition in the Ising-like antiferromagnetic spin chain BaCo2V2O8. Nature Phys 14, 716–722 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-018-0126-8
Nature Physics (2021)
Physical Review B (2021)
npj Quantum Materials (2021)
Physical Review B (2021)
Spin Excitations of the S = 1/2 One-Dimensional Ising-Like Antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8 in Transverse Magnetic Fields
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan (2021)