Figure 3: Nature Physics

Fig. 3: Snowflake yeast evolve to mitigate mechanical stresses by increasing volume fraction.

From: Cellular packing, mechanical stress and the evolution of multicellularity

Fig. 3

a, Experimentally measured fraction of cells with aspect ratio below α for week-1 (blue) and week-8 (red) genotypes. b, Volume fraction from experiment versus volume fraction from simulation. Week-4 (yellow circle) and week-6 (green circle) samples are included as well. Linear fit slope = 0.998, r 2 = 0.94; error bars indicate standard error. c, Visual comparison of a confocal image of a snowflake (top) and a simulation-generated snowflake (bottom). d, The simulation (continuous lines, averaged over 100 unique trials) accurately predicts the number of cells in a cluster observed in experiments (circles, each symbol is a measurement from a different cluster) as a function of radius for both genotypes. e, Simulated energy input required to fracture versus cluster radius. The critical energy threshold was selected using the experimental value for week-8 spontaneous fracture size. Yellow diamonds show the experimentally measured spontaneous fracture size; error bars indicate standard error.